Friday, December 31, 2021

All the babies will be brown

The Limits of the World: A Novel  by Jennifer Acker (Goodreads Author)

3.42 · Rating details · 268 ratings · 47 reviews


The Chandaria family—emigrants from the Indian-enclave of Nairobi—have managed to flourish in America. Premchand, the father, is a doctor who has worked doggedly to grow his practice and give his family security; his wife, Urmila, runs a business importing artisanal Kenyan crafts; and their son, Sunil, after quitting the pre- med track, has gotten accepted to a PhD program in philosophy at Harvard. But the parents have kept a very important secret from Sunil: his cousin, Bimal, is actually his older brother. And when this previously hidden history is revealed by an unforeseen accident, and the entire family is forced to return to Nairobi, Sunil reveals his own well-kept, explosive secret: his Jewish-American girlfriend, who has accompanied him to Kenya, is, in fact, already his wife. Spanning four generations and three continents, The Limits of the World illuminates the vast mosaic of cultural divisions and ethical considerations that shape the ways in which we judge one

another’s actions. A dazzling debut novel—written with rare empathy and insight—it is a powerful depiction of how we prevent ourselves, unwittingly and otherwise, from understanding the people we are closest to.

In the 1960's and 1970's, an exodus of Asians took place from East Africa. While they wished the newly independent countries - Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania- success and prosperity, many Asians felt that the future for them and their children was likely to be fraught with problems if they stayed put in Kenya. Besides the policy of "Africanisation", many Asians questioned whether there was a future for their children. 

The expulsion of Asians from Uganda  by the monster Idi Amin was perhaps the biggest single factor that made Asians feel that it was time to find a more permanent home and future for their families. The vast majority opted for Great Britain because their British passports entitled them to settle in Britain. Those who did not qualify to enter Britain (and some who did) applied in thousands to emigrate to the U.S.A., Canada, Australia and a handful of other countries. 

I don't have the exact figures but I would estimate that between 1960 and 1975, well over a million displaced Asians put down roots in countries all over the globe. Each of our stories is different; my family owes its presence in Southern Alberta to a farming couple from Cardston, now deceased but forever remembered with gratitude and love.

That this exodus and resettlement was achieved relatively smoothly and peacefully is greatly to the credit of not only the receiving countries but also to the fact that most Asians became productive members of their countries almost immediately. Very few claimed unemployment benefits. Whether it is their business acumen, education, industry, their financial resources or whatever, within fifty years of the exodus, Asians, particularly Indians have done very well financially and their children have taken advantage of educational opportunities to become qualified professionals in every sector of the workforce. During the present pandemic, for example, it was easily apparent how many of the  medical experts and spokesmen were of Asian origin.

By and large, the first generation of Asians was conservative and keen to remain true to their cultural roots. Most recognized, however, that as time went by, their sons and daughters, and even more so their grandchildren would become more liberal and pragmatic in adopting the mores of the pluralistic society that they were living in. Several writers have tried to capture the pressures that have been placed on emigrants, steeped in centuries of their own culture, having to adapt to a new world, a world often not sympathetic to foreign customs, attire or beliefs.

It is in this context that I read an excerpt from Jennifer Acker's recently published book, "The Limits of the World". This was the excerpt sent to me by a niece:

Anyone who is familiar with Jennifer Acker's  and Sunil's world is likely to be intrigued by this unlikely couple if only because couples like them are becoming increasingly part of our landscape. I certainly enjoyed the excerpt to the point that I immediately ordered a copy from Amazon and was promised delivery by mid-January. I have given some more details of the book in the attachment if you are interested. To those of you who are not interested in this topic, my apologies for the length of this introduction.



Friday, December 24, 2021

Immunisation or Vaccination?


How does immunisation work?

The terms ‘vaccination’ and ‘immunisation’ don’t mean quite the same thing. Vaccination is the term used for getting a vaccine — that is, actually getting the injection or taking an oral vaccine dose. Immunisation refers to the process of both getting the vaccine and becoming immune to the disease following vaccination.

All forms of immunisation work in the same way. When someone is injected with a vaccine, their body produces an immune response in the same way it would following exposure to a disease but without the person getting the disease. If the person comes in contact with the disease in the future, the body is able to make an immune response fast enough to prevent the person developing the disease or developing a severe case of the disease.

What is in vaccines?

Some vaccines contain a very small dose of a live but weakened form of a virus. Some vaccines contain a very small dose of killed bacteria or small parts of bacteria, and other vaccines contain a small dose of a modified toxin produced by bacteria.

Vaccines may also contain either a small amount of preservative or a small amount of an antibiotic to preserve the vaccine. Some vaccines may also contain a small amount of an aluminium salt, which helps produce a better immune response.

How long do immunisations take to work?

In general, the normal immune response takes approximately 2 weeks to work. This means protection from an infection will not occur immediately after immunisation. Most immunisations need to be given several times to build long-lasting protection.

A child who has been given only 1 or 2 doses of the DTPa vaccine is only partially protected against diphtheriatetanus and pertussis (whooping cough) and may become sick if exposed to these diseases until they have all the doses they need. However, some of the new vaccines, such as the meningococcal ACWY vaccine, provide long-lasting immunity after only one dose.

How long do immunisations last?

The protective effect of immunisations is not always lifelong. Some, like tetanus vaccine, can last up to 10 years depending on your age, after which time a booster dose may be given. Some immunisations, such as whooping cough vaccine, give protection for about 5 years after a full course. Influenza immunisation is needed every year due to frequent changes to the type of flu virus in the community.

Is everyone protected from disease by immunisation?

Even when all the doses of a vaccine have been given, not everyone is protected against the disease. Measlesmumpsrubella, tetanus, polio, hepatitis B and haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines protect more than 95% of children who have completed the course. One dose of meningococcal ACWY vaccine at 12 months protects over 90% of children.

Three doses of whooping cough vaccine protect about 85% of children who have been immunised, and will reduce the severity of the disease in the other 15% if they do catch whooping cough. Booster doses are needed because immunity decreases over time.


Wednesday, December 22, 2021

Reggie Monteiro: life's gentleman

The gentleman of life

Reggie Monteiro

My favourite memory of Reggie and Ivy, their engagement with all the sports people in attendance.  In this photo, Henry D’Souza, Reynold D’Souza, Silu Fernandes and the late great Alu Mendonca.

REGGIE, one of the most popular, respected guys growing up in Kenya, died on his birthday on December 18, 2021. His most endearing quality was that he was always a gentleman, a considerate man and someone who chose his words after much thought and said what he had to say with due consideration for the folks he was speaking to. He could be tough when he needed to, but there was an honesty about that toughness which most of his friends respected.

Above all, he was a sportsman at heart. In hockey, they called him the gentleman of the sport … a sport which bred some hard young men who were not averse to hurting each other if they could get away with it. There were also the tricksters who did all sorts of things, a neat tap on the ankle bones, or the shins, or ball hit on the fit to gain that vital penalty corner and this and that.

However, that was the difference, Reggie played the game like a true sportsman. On the hockey field, he was where he indulged himself the most. As a centre forward the defenders did their best to put Reggie of his game by hitting him on the shins, around the ankles and anywhere else they thought they would get away with. However, that did not stop Reggie, he went about the business of scoring goals without hitting anyone below the belt, just as he did for the rest of his life. He also loved cricket and other sports but hockey was in the blood. With Ivy by his side, they were the most admired couple and as far as the guys and gals go, perhaps a little envied couple. But, as they say, this was a match made in Heaven.

Those of us who knew Reggie will never forget the gentle man we learnt to love and admire as youngsters growing up in a kind of paradise. Rest in Peace dear friend, your place in heaven was booked the day you were born. Courage Ivy, and courage too for the children and the grandchildren and the extended family.



Reggie, second left standing, next to the late Alu Mendonca, the late Anthony Vaz extreme right and Hilary Fernandes on the floor left in a match representing Kenya in a territorial international

Reggie with Nairobi Goan Institute  M R De Souza hockey Gold Cup winning side


AVTAR SINGH SOHAL (Multi-hockey-Olympian and Kenya’s longest-serving captain, Old Grand Warrior: My association with Goans goes back for many years. I have and have had many friends and fans from the Goan community. Reggie was one of them. What a great personality, humble and down to earth. Our heartfelt condolences to the family and friends He will be missed by many. God Bless.


SILU FERNANDES (multi-hockey-Olympian)

I was saddened to learn that my dear friend Reg passed away on his birthday December 28.


Reg and his three brothers (Ernest, Renato, Raul) along with my four brothers and I grew up together in the same neighbourhood in Nairobi, attended the same school, played hockey, cricket, and some track and field right from our days as kids until we moved to different parts of the world. I feel privileged that our friendship lasted right through.


Reg was an always smiling, caring and beloved family man, a great friend and a true sportsman who will be missed by many and never forgotten.


Rest in peace, My Friend.


HILARY FERNANDES (multi-hockey-Olympian)


RIP REGGIE MONTEIRO ... one of the hockey greats of Kenya:


Sorry to hear of the passing away of a thorough gentleman and a Classy Clean Hockey player. This brings us to the end of the Monteiro Dynasty (Reggie being predeceased by his brothers Ernest, Raul and Renato).


It is with sadness that we learn of the passing of Reggie. I had the greatest pleasure of playing alongside him in the 1959 Inter Territorial Championship in Uganda. Reggie was a dashing and stylish centre forward.


I offer his wife and family our sincere condolences. May his soul R.I.P.

He is now united with all his brothers. May God give you the strength at this time to bear the sad loss.



ALVIRA ALMEIDA (hockey player)

Reggie was an impeccable gentleman. Always courteous and friendly. Sorry to hear about his illness, Ivy would have poured every drop of love into caring for him. They adored each other.  Reg was a gentleman on the sports field too. Renato was the tough one, Ernest and Raul were lovely guys but Renato was also a charmer. Reggie was always everyone’s favourite person, even while we were all growing up and he remained that all his life. I am glad I knew them both.


OSCAR D’SOUZA (hockey player/international umpire)

(The D’Souzas and the Monteiros had some epic differences of opinion which were led by the two fathers especially about hockey and the Nairobi Goan Institute. Reggie was never a part of these debates).

A very jovial and excellent hockey player, he enjoyed life to the fullest. He said what he meant and meant what he said. He will be missed.

REYNOLD D’SOUZA (double Olympian)

Sad to hear Reggie has passed away.

We had great times together. I remember his joy when courting Ivy, his hospitality and his love for life. Had the pleasure of playing alongside and against him and admired his skill, sportsmanship and smiling personality. I offer my condolences to Ivy and her family and pray that God will give them strength during this difficult time. 



NORMAN DA COSTA, Journalist, sportsman

I never got a chance to watch Reggie Monteiro in action on the hockey field as he played well before my time. But from what I have been told Reggie was fast, had superb stickwork and first made his mark with Lusitanians – named after the famous club in Mumbai. The club was formed by Anthony D’Souza, a former Lusitanian star in Mumbai, who made a bigger mark as an English teacher at the Dr Ribeiro Goan School where he groomed several Olympic stars.


Reggie represented Kenya in the inter-territorial championships in 1959 and was a member of the Nairobi Goan Institute team that won the first M.R. De Souza Gold Cup in 1952. Reggie was one of three brothers on the team that included Ernest and Renato. His younger brother Raul also played for G.I. in later years. Reggie always had a smile that would light up a room and he was always warm and affectionate unless you rubbed him the wrong way. O

One year Reggie selected an all-star cricket team from the three Nairobi Goan clubs – G.I., Railway Goan Institute and Goan Gymkhana – to take on Mombasa Goan Institute in a two-day match. It was by far one of the best sports trips I made and we named it “Pound-Pound trip” Reggie decided that wherever we stopped for a meal or drinks each member had to hand a 20-shilling note to our treasurer Maurice. It was only on the second day of the encounter that I saw Reggie lose his cool. We had all gone for lunch and the captain made it clear that everyone had to return by 2 p.m. for the second innings. Three of the players – no names mentioned – arrived late and quietly slipped onto the field. Reggie ordered them off and ordered they would take no more part in the match despite our protestations. But Reggie stood firm. Silu Fernandes and I opened the innings and both scored half-centuries to give our skipper the victory. The players eventually apologized and we got back to Nairobi one happy group again.


Reggie was a gentleman and we will miss him. Our condolences to his wife Ivy and family. Ivy, of course, was also involved in hockey and had the honour of managing an East African national women’s team to India in the 1990s.


Tuesday, December 14, 2021

Should Australia give HM the Queen the flick?

Should Australia give the Queen the flick?



SBS is exploring the possible making of a program that questions the validity of the Queen as Head of Australia. In a letter to various community organisations, the producer makes the following points:


As mentioned, I am putting together a story on multicultural perspectives on Queen Elizabeth.

“I am looking for someone whose family may have had a negative experience with the British Raj or something similar and is open to talking about that.

“I would also ask for their perspective on having a British head of state in Australia.

“It would be a TV interview and we would like to conduct the interview at their house.

“Their perspective will be aired alongside Vietnamese, Malaysian and Greek perspectives, forming part of multiple viewpoints.”

What is the worst thing that can happen if you pursue this course?

It is deemed futile?

Mischief making? 

A question that needs to be asked?


Australia and the United Kingdom have been joined at the hip and along the spine right up to the skull for centuries. Thousands of Australian Brits, men and women, and other Europeans and Aboriginals have died for King and country in two world wars. The only difference in the lifestyles of the two countries is that Australia has more sunshine and more beautiful beaches. Other than that, for all intents and purposes, we are a British colony. And, why not?


Lots of white Australians still have tangible links with the United Kingdom. Most if, not all, swear allegiance to the Queen and the Crown. The Scots and the Welsh may return spoilt papers in a referendum! 

In my case, my family and I migrated to Australia from the UK, exchanging one country for a similar one with the bonus that we could renew our tans in the abundant sunshine of Australia, something that came naturally to us in our Mother Country, Kenya. Having been born and raised in a colonial country, good, bad or ugly, it is the only life we have known. The same goes for all those exiles from the former Northern Rhodesia, South Africa, Namibia and the rest of British colonial Africa where British passport holders became exiles with the advent of independence. Britain and Canada gave thousands of British colony exiles sanctuary in the first place, then we found a second home from home: Australia.

Barring the colour of my skin, I grew up a second or third-grade colonial. It was the only life I had known growing up. My parents were Goan with a Portuguese influence and pretty alien to the British way of life but they all soon got used to it.

The exiles who found new sanctuary in the UK, Canada, USA and other parts of the world, swear total allegiance to their new sanctuaries but they have never completely forgotten the land of the heritage (Goa) and their birth mother country, somewhere in Africa. I have been swearing allegiance to the Queen ever since I was a little boy. 

Is there a case for an Aboriginal (First Australian) becoming Head of State? I don’t know. At best it would be tokenism because thousands would vote “No” in a referendum. A referendum is unlikely to return in the positive. The numbers do not add up. More importantly, I doubt if either of the two major political support would support such a referendum. I am even sure they would encourage discussion for such a change. 

I think the only people who have the right to say aye or nay are the First Australians, Native Indigenous Australians. The rest of us are Australians by their leave. The problem is: White Australia from the earliest days is mainly British. Their mother country is Britain. They owe allegiance only to the British sovereign, by choice, by right. 

When the UK gave independence to India, various colonies in Africa, and South-East Asia, most of the whites tried in the first instance to return to the ice-cold freezing UK, only to return to Northern Rhodesia, South Africa (where apartheid) welcomed them and Australia where many have found a welcoming home, including the "colonial" whites from Angola, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Ian Smith's Rhodesia and the rest of Africa. 

Could not see the same happening here in a million years (granting the First Australians independence and Australia becoming a republic and remaining a member of the British Commonwealth). To even discuss the subject in public would be akin to mutiny and her Britannic Majesty's Subject would rush to bear arms, so to speak. +My goodness gracious me, what an ungrateful lot ... we gave them the best life they could have and now turn and shit on us  ...+ "You see, you see! Pauline Hanson" was always right! Send them packing. If the question was ever put, and the Yes vote won, would we all be packing our bags for UK and places unknown? Lots of the white settlers who left East Africa first for the UK and then for parts unknown have returned to the lands they loved so much and called them home.

We call Australia home, but is it? Will all non-white skinned people be thrown out, one day? And you know what they say, Never, say, Never. But that is being too extreme.

Hence, in the final analysis, only the First Australians have the licence by birthright to say anything on the subject. Beggar's the question, will Australia ever have an Aboriginal Monarch, Head of State or Emperor?


CNN)On Australia Day, locals are asking if it's time to ditch the country's British royal rulers.

Or as chairman of the Australian Republican Movement Peter FitzSimons described the monarchy in an impassioned speech this week: "One family of aristocrats living in a palace in England."
    "It is our hope and belief that sometime in the next five years, Australia can again begin the formal process towards becoming the Republic of Australia," he said, referencing a failed referendum on the issue in 1999.
      More than 15 years later, FitzSimons now has the backing of almost all of Australia's state leaders, who have signed a declaration calling for the country's independence.
      The movement is also urging people to sign a petition calling for an Australian head of state, however at the time of writing it had less than 10,000 signatures.

      Of Australia's eight state and territory leaders, seven have lent their support to the republic campaign, alongside Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull.
      It's a very different view from former Prime Minister and staunch monarchist, Tony Abbott, who controversially knighted the Duke of Edinburgh, Prince Philip, on Australia Day in 2015.
      Former Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott with the Queen in 2011.
      Months later he was tossed from office after a leadership challenge by Turnbull, who promptly shelved Abbott's move to bring back knights and dames.
      Western Australian Premier Colin Barnett was the only state leader who refused to sign the declaration to install an Australian as Head of Statethough is said to be generally supportive of the movement.
      Andrew Barr, chief minister of the Australian Capital Territory, was one of the leaders who signed the Australian Republican Movement declaration.
      "I believe Australians deserve to have a head of state who is Australian -- someone who lives in our country and represents our values and beliefs," he told the ARM. "Our ties with the Monarchy continue to reflect a nation of the past. It's time for us to grow up and stand on our own two feet."
      Monarchists say their republican rivals are rehashing a tired argument, and that no popularly-elected Head of State could compare to the Queen.
      Australia is a constitutional monarchy -- while the country has its own parliament, Queen Elizabeth II is the head of state. Her Majesty's representative in Australia is the Governor-General Peter Cosgrove.
      A referendum on whether Australia should become a republic was held in 1999, with the majority voting to keep the Queen as head of state.
      The leader of the Australian Republican Movement at the time, was now-Prime Minister Turnbull.
        While 45% of voters supported a republic in the 1999 referendum, this appeared to have dropped to 38% in a 2013 poll.


        Tuesday, December 7, 2021

        It's just not cricket!


        Why I will always miss the great John Arlott

        OK. I give up. I know I am an old man and no longer a with+it+whipper+snapper. Mind you I will always be a promoter of change, good change. However, somethings leave me feeling like a crotchety old bugger who maybe should not be let out of his pillowed armchair. And as change goes, I have been able to handle most innovations, although the changes that are happening today, especially the electronic stuff, leaves me scratching my head or even taking a large detour to avoid at all costs. But there is one change that I will never come to terms with: the modern style of comic opera cricket commentary.

        I remember going to a Q&A session with the great English editor of the London Daily Mail, David English. When we were discussing cricket commentary, he said it was incumbent upon the commentators to tell their audience what they themselves may not be able to see (on radio and much later on TV). That is perhaps the key element that is often missing in modern cricket commentary. It is an unwritten law that commentary should make for the greatest quip, words that will last a thousand years or more, or bring to life a miniscule comic relief that will be remembered forever.

        I have loved women’s cricket, at least the playing of it. Women's cricket has had a big season. Great cricket. India gave the Aussies a couple of scares and looked good for a long while. The T20 bash was enhanced with Indian spice (the players I mean) as well as players from the UK, South Africa etc. The cricket was just great. I am more likely to hit the mute button the moment the giggling starts. There has been plenty of it in the recent WBBL. Sad, from my point of view. I would venture that taking the piss was never good cricket really. All that DJ drumming up the crowd, ridiculous music ... all awful. I don't mind the live bands in South Africa, the steel drummers of the West Indies and even the Indian and Sri Lankan drummers and musicians ... all part of the tradition but it is not an ear deafening racket.

        As a child I grew up listening to British and Australian commentators, what little I could get to listen on a world war one crystal set. During the little time I spent in England, I was in 7th Heaven, listening regularly to the great John Arlott and the English spinner Jim Laker. My Sunday’s watching a black-and-white TV were a few hours of heaven. I was always mesmerised by the brilliance of the commentary, the poetry, the economy of words that soared like a roar of trumpets.

        The great commentator  Neville Cardus’ quoted reaction (to Arlott succeeding hime at the Guardian) was I have always admired Arlott’s economy of words, his ability to depict a scene or character as though by flashlight …….. he is one of our most civilised writers. That economy of words is well illustrated by, for example, Arlott’s verdict on the great Barry Richards; He butchers bowling, hitting with a savage power the more impressive for being veiled by the certainty of his timing. (Martin Chandler)

        There were no huge roars of giddying laughter, or voices raised and mixed with hoots of laughter. Laughter did come from a hilarious line or two delivered, sometimes, with the tongue firmly in the cheek. The laughter roared from the watching or listening public. But from the broadcasting duo, there was always grace, good grace and elegant delivery in reporting the great drama of an English cricket match with all its drama, brilliance, and sometimes a little silliness released with any amount of regret or shame moments later.

        I am reasonably confident that the BBL commentary will continue its merry way. There are enough pros to keep the traditions of commentary excellence alive and well. Really happy with the BBL commentary team!

        In Australia, we will never forget the abundance of greatness we have savoured in the commentary box. I only heard a few commentaries by the venerable Alan McGilvray, brilliantly succeed by the enigmatic Jim Maxwell. Up there with the best will always Richie Benaud. There are others from the West Indies, the UK, South Africa and Australia who have shone on the cricket mike. Among current crop, the great Indian batsmen and commentator Sunil Gavaskar ranks very highly. His knowledge of the game and the intricacies of the playing habits on display are quiet splendid. He also has a keen eye for a happy chirp and he is quick to tell his viewers of the momentary comic opera on display. Above all, he is always the grandeur of the game and he lives as he played it … with a lot of formidable skill, grace, aplomb and panache.  There are also a few women broadcasters who are their own individual niches in the commentary box. I would like to think the commentary in the men’s Test arena is still in very good hands. May not be in the class of the greats of the past, but still enriching the game.




        Arlott was born in 1914 in Basingstoke and was therefore a quarter of a century younger than Cardus. The two men did not therefore have a great deal in common outside cricket, albeit for neither was cricket the be all and end all, something which doubtless contributed to the quality of their writing. In addition, neither went straight into the press box, and neither was a good cricketer. Cardus was a noted music critic in addition to his cricketing duties. Arnott was a poet, wine expert and, of course, an accomplished broadcaster.


        After leaving school Arlott worked in his local town hall briefly before spending four years as a records clerk in a mental hospital. He then joined the Southampton Borough Police, a job he stayed in for a dozen years, rising to the rank of Sergeant. He spent much of his free time in the summer watching Hampshire play cricket, and another abiding passion was writing poetry.


        Eventually Arlott’s poems brought him to the attention of future Poet Laureate John Betjeman and, through him, to the BBC and in 1946, after spending some time combining his police duties with BBC work Arlott joined the corporation as an Overseas Literary Producer. When, that summer, the management were looking for someone to broadcast to India on the 1946 tour Arlott was given the task. The rest, as they say, is history. (Martin Chandler)


        "Australianism' means single-minded determination to win - to win within the laws but, if necessary, to the last limit within them. It means where the 'impossible' is within the realm of what the human body can do, there are Australians who believe that they can do it - and who have succeeded often enough to make us wonder if anything is impossible to them. It means they have never lost a match - particularly a Test match - until the last run is scored or their last wicket down." ~ John Arlott


        "The batsman's technique was like an old lady poking her umbrella at a wasp's nest." ~ John Arlott


        "Cricket is a most precarious profession; it is called a team game but, in fact, no one is so lonely as a batsman facing a bowler supported by ten fieldsmen and observed by two umpires to ensure that his error does not go unpunished." ~ John Arlott


        "It is rather suitable for umpires to dress like dentists, since one of their tasks is to draw stumps." ~ John Arlott


        "The umpire signals a bye with the air of a weary stalk" ~ John Arlott


        "Ray Illingworth is relieving himself in front of the pavilion." ~ John Arlott


        "Bill Frindall has done a bit of mental arithmetic with a calculator" ~ John Arlott


        "Umpire Harold Bird, having a wonderful time, signalling everything in the world, including stopping traffic coming on from behind." ~ John Arlott




          PAUL NAZARETH A dedicated clubman Paul Nazareth is typical of the young Goans who grew up in East Africa and Nairobi and Mombasa in ...