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Stars Next Door: Born to Run! Laura Ramos

Lami with high school championship trophy for St. Mary's in Bombay.

 Mombasa G.I. Girls' netball team vs. Tanga. (Laura, kneeling far right)



Lami (goalie) with St. Marys' hockey team in Bombay 


Mombasa G. I. hockey team. (Laura set record).

 

On the podium with Phila Fernandes and Joanita Noronha for the 220 m. at the Coast Annual Championships in Mombasa.

         
                                 By Laura Ramos    
                                                                    
My sprinting career began ever since I could walk.  I was the only girl in a family of four boys.  For four years, I seemed to be an embarrassment to my older brothers, as I was shy, awkward, and spoke only Portuguese, Kiswahili and understood Konkani.  They kept running away from me anytime I tried to tag along.  I had no friends, and always hid behind my mother when her friends visited us.  So I spoke very little and became a good listener and learned by rote.  My greatest joy was to run, climb trees, and play boy games – gilly-danda, marbles, seven tiles and whittling wood to make toys.  I could make catapults from scratch and dabbled in kite making. 
     Four years later my third brother was born and two years after him a fourth, sealing my destiny to become a tomboy and a tough one, too.  The first day in school, I was a misfit.  I cried when I had to leave my brothers, and take my place in the kindergarten class, with a stern teacher at the front.  I began sniveling non-stop, until the teacher got fed up, seized my hand, and marched me to my older brother’s class.   He was embarrassed and angry, but seemed ready to protect me if anybody made fun of the situation.  I wowed then, that I would never embarrass any of my family again.  So I shut my mouth and absorbed every lesson.  That year, I took the first prize in English and loved it.  School became fun, and learning became my ‘best friend’!  My classmates noticed my skills in Physical Education and sports.  I had a trove of good friends, some of whom I keep in touch with to this day. 
    In 1960, my father, who worked for the Medical Department, was transferred to Mombasa where he worked at the Government Hospital on Salim Road.  It took him about 30 minutes to get to work from Hobley Road.  My brothers were enrolled in the Goan School in Ganjoni and I was enrolled at The Star of the Sea School on Salim Road near the Goan Institute.  My school was co-ed from Kandi to grade 7.  I graduated with a grade I Cambridge Overseas Certificate.  I then studied at the Coast Teacher Training College.  It was here that I had the chance to play netball, and gymnastics was a part of Physical Training.  Two years later, I was selected by the Principal of the Arab Girls’ School to teach at the newly opened facility specializing in Physical Education.  The students had never been to a public school before, and they were faced with many challenges and a close eye was kept to make sure strict Muslim rules were adhered to.  Many were natural athletes, and welcomed the protection of high school walls so they could remove their ‘burkas’ (head and body cover) and participate freely in all physical activities.
     In my teens, I joined the Coast Athletic Club (Achilles Club) run by Coach Ray Batchelor.  Albert Castanha, Seraphino Antao, Pascal Antao, Alfred Viana, Phila Fernandes, Joanita Noronha and Meldrita were some of those that trained with me. I took part in the 100m 200m sprints as well as the shot put, long and triple and high jumps. 
      After school, I corrected student work and prepared lessons for the next day.  Then I walked with my sports bag 800 yards away to a track next to the Goan Institute Club sports field.  All alone, I warmed up doing stretches, then practiced starts and sprints ending with jogs and cooling down exercises.  By 5:00 p.m.  I removed my spikes and walked to the club pavilion where my fellow field hockey players were gathering for practice.  There I formed two teams and began practicing skills needed to be competition ready.  By now there was a group of male experts to help with coaching. 

I then went to nearby badminton courts to work on game skills for singles, doubles and mixed doubles.  I followed these routine most weekdays.  I travelled to other states for competitions and to play against rival teams. I was selected as Sportswoman of the Year 1962.

        I met my husband, Lami, in 1960 when he came from Dar-es-Salaam after East Africa and other states got their independence from Britain.      He played football and field hockey for St. Mary’s School in Bombay and for the Goan Institute in Dar-es-Salaam.  It was destiny that brought us together.  It was a difficult time as many government workers were losing jobs to indigenous people.  This is when Lami proposed and I accepted, determined that we could begin life together anywhere.  He went to Dar-es-Salaam to work in the private sector, and after finding an apartment; we set our wedding date and were married in April 1964.  By this time, Lami was working for Alitalia Airlines.  We made two trips to Rome with our first and then 2 boys.  I worked as a teacher at a model school attached to the Teacher Training Center where I met Helen Alpert.  We became good friends until she finished her contract and returned to America. 

In 1969, we were allotted green cards to immigrate to America after a 4 year wait.  Our trip to France took hours.  From Paris to New York 8 hours, where we were snowed in for two days.  At the home of Lami’s Italian friend based in New York, “Mummy, and look! It’s Christmas!” yelled my oldest, seated at the window.  He had seen a Christmas card with a picture of drawn curtains opening to a snow storm.  After two days, the plane took off on the flight to Los Angeles and then to Santa Ana, California.  As I stood with my family at the door of the plane, I had an indescribable feeling of peace and freedom, the warm sun bathing us with Hope. Our friend, Helen, greeted us with open arms.  We had kept in touch, and when she heard that we were going to settle in NY, she had written,

“That’s a concrete jungle!  Come to California.”  She had set up our apartment down to flowers in vases with a group of friends.
    
Lami got a job with Western Airlines a year later (a 45 miles, one way commute to LA).  I went to college at night, working part time at schools to pay for it.  We made time for tennis and badminton.  We have kept up a schedule for workouts at the gym.  We talk about the past with nostalgia with many friends that have settled here, not only from Africa, but from Bombay and Goa as well.  We meet many in Toronto at reunions of the Goan School.  Thanks to social networks, we keep connected.  Many have passed away, but the yen to make the connections is alive! 
                                                                                                                        
My thoughts on Sport

  • My biggest rival? Myself, Meldrita Laurente, Phila Fernandes, Juanita Noronha.  This was in the late 1960s at sports meets at the Mombasa Municipality Stadium near my home in Hobley Road, Sports Day on the Goan Institute field in Ganjoni and national meetings in Kabete, Nairobi.  The first meet held at the Municipal Stadium in 1958(?) was most memorable as I won the floating championship trophy and first place in the 100 metre dash, the Shot Put, the Triple Jump and the 4X100 metres relay.  I was in hog heaven!
  • Under Coach Batchelor's guidance, I honed in my sprinting skills, improved starts by watching Albert Castanha, Seraphino Antao and the other male sprinters.  Later he taught me how to use blocks to get shooting starts.  As a coach, he set examples of respect for other competitors, not resting on your laurels, using your inborn energy and talents to be a winner.  I never heard him put down any athlete, and boosted anyone who showed any disappointment in being second-best.  I have used all this advice my entire life in all I do.  I looked up to him as My Hero and a Godsend.  I never have forgotten him as I hold him in the highest esteem as a coach.
  • We were like one big family, striving to do our best, encouraging and cheering each other at practice and sports meets, but having a lot of fun, too.  Albert was like a brother to me. Anytime I met any of them in later years in other countries, they always made it a point to spend time talking about the 'old days' and inquiring about involvement in sports and sharing notes on new achievements.
  • My favorite sport was field hockey because it involved team spirit and hard work.  I was very disciplined any time I played any sports (I am this way in everything I undertake be it studying, teaching, lecturing or presenting at conferences),  It is fun to encourage people to unearth their hidden abilities and use them to full advantage (I still echo Coach Batchelor here).
  • My Dad and Mum were always proud of my achievements as they was were involved in sports (Mom won the championship cup at badminton and her framed photo was displayed at home and at the photographer's shop at the corner of Government Road and the bus Terminal in Nairobi) and Dad played tennis and football for the GI Nairobi.  He often told me how he and his teammates had to hack their way through the bush to get to Tanga, in Tanganyika, to play the opposing team there).  Both loved to tell their friends of my achievements.  
  • Some of the Goan girls who took part in Sports with me:  Phila and Sylvie Fernandes; Meldrita Viegas (nee Laurente); Juanita Ramos (nee Noronha my sis-in-law married to Alvito), (late) Melba De Souza - nee Castellino); Ruth de Souza (Melbourne); Ivy Botello; Diana Barros; Ida Pires; Wenda Carvalho; (late) Selina Viegas; Amy Fernandes; Sybil Correa; and Linda Martyres to name a few.    









Stars Next Door" Two mighty Trojans of Kenya hockey

Avatar Singh Sohal "Tari"

Alu Mendonca






A hockey warrior mourns his great friend and foe
By Cyprian Fernandes*
BETWEEN 1950 and 1970 two communities dominated hockey in Kenya: the mighty Sikhs and their arch rivals, the Goans. This was a rivalry that has, perhaps, never been duplicated in any other country where two communities have warred for national, Olympic and club hockey domination.
For most of that period each of the factions were led by two fierce warriors: Avtar Singh Sohal “Tari” to every one, who went on to become one of the most decorated hockey players in Kenya and Alu Mendonca, hailed as the greatest Goan player  in Africa.
The rivalry was akin to Gor Mahia playing Maragoli (in its heyday) or Abaluhya when they were at their best. Days when Joe Kadenge was king and challenged by Elijah Lidonde or any one of the great Luo players.  Like the Goans and he Sikhs, their supporters were passionate and dedicated.
While at club level, the brilliant Sikh Union dominated the decade with some of the toughest, defensive hockey ever seen in club hockey, their motto must have been “none shall pass” with Avtar Singh Sohal at the centre of it. There was brilliance up front too with the like of Surjeet Singh Panesar, for me one of the greatest centre-halves ever.
The Railway Goan Institute led by Alu Mendonca and the Goan Institute spearheaded by the late sterling centre forward Egbert Fernandes were no slouches either, especially in the MR De Souza Gold Cup tournament. The City Park stadium thundered in appreciation of the courage and guile on show each year.
Ironically, most of the Sikh and Goan Olympians were best of buddies on the national team and away from their respective clubs socialised as much as occasion would allow. However, the friendship between the two Trojans, Alu and Tari  was special. Make no mistake, they played hard against each, never gave an inch or took it a little easy on each other. However, once the game was over, they were back to being old mates. This was true of most hockey players. They left their differences on the rich murram of City Park or any of the other club grounds.

There was some spite off the field and it was by the Goan clubs taking aim at a Goan traitor, the brilliant strategist Hilary Fernandes who broke ranks and played for the emperors of club hockey: Sikh Union. The venom was poisonous that when Hilary and Elsie wanted to get married none of the Goan clubs would let them use their halls. I know Hilary was hurt because I was his Best Man. 
There was always an after-the-match soft drink at the Goan Institute, the Railway Goan Institute, or the Goan Institute (the Singh’s bar across the road from the GI where Egbert often hosted visiting before and after international matches). At the Sikh Union, on the roof terrace, the soft drink would be asked to be poured two fingers deep (it was actually four fingers) and it was served with some of the greatest curried "roast" chicken by men for men in those politically incorrect times, sexist times.


Sikhs also controlled the powerful Kenya Hockey Union and there were howls of nepotism, bias and corruption every time a new Kenya team was selected. The barbs were aimed at Hardial Singh who was for many, many years the Kenya coach and a mentor to most Sikh players. One such “victim” was the enigmatic Franklyn Pereira from Mombasa who never made an Olympics team. The KHU was accused of being Nairobi-centric. I think that blemish, like indelible ink, never be forgotten by Goans at the coast.


Virtually every one of the Goans admired “Tari” and players like Alu, Hilary Fernandes (who played for the Sikh Union for a while) Silu Fernandes, Egbert Fernandes were also considered Tari’s pals. Surjeet Singh Panesar and others enjoyed similar relations.
With Alu’s passing, memories of the great rivalries also begin to fade with only Tari, Surjeet Panesar, Hilary, Silu, Edgar, Raphael, Edgar, Leo, Reynold D’Souza, and a few others left to carry the torch of days that used to be.
Here is a touching farewell from Tari to Alu: It is sad news. We lost a great man and great personality. I had the honour to play three Olympic Games 1960, 1964 and 1968 with him. He was my assistant coach in 1971 hockey World Cup where Kenya finished 4th in the world. He had great speedy and control on the ball and scored some fantastic goals in his career. He was the greatest felt wing Kenya ever produced. He was humble and down to earth. I had great memories with him and my other friend Egbert Fernandes. Very hard to get these type personalities in your life and it was honour to be their friend. Alu will be remembered for his great work in hockey. Our heartfelt condolences to his children Derek, Erika and Cora-Lisa  and their families. May God rest his soul in eternal peace. God Bless. We all will miss you.”
By the time 1970 arrived, most of the Goan and Sikh players had already migrated to other shores but Alu and Tari preferred to remain dedicated and loyal to Kenya and the game that had given the fame and pleasure. Both men served Kenya with distinction in the coaching area once their playing days were over.

 
Between 1952 and 1983, the kings of East African club hockey, the Sikh Union won an astounding 14 MR De Souza Gold Cup tournaments, more than any other club by a large margin.






The great hockey rivalry
Kenya 1956 Olympic team:
Goans: Reynold D’Souza, Michael Pereira, Alu Mendonca, Anthony Vaz, Rosario Dalgado (5).
Sikhs Gursaran Singh Sehmi, Tejparkash Singh Brar, Joginder Singh Dhillon, Tajinder Singh Rao, Balbir Singh Sidhu, Hardev Singh Khular, Surjeet Singh Deol, Avtar Singh Deol (8).
Kenya 1960
Goans: Alu Mendonca, Anthony Vaz, Edgar Fernandes, Egbert Fernandes, Saude George, Hilary Fernandes, Silvester Fernandes (7)
Sikhs: Avtar Singh Sohal, Gursharan Singh Sehmi,  Hardev Singh Kular, Jagnandan Singh, Kirpal Singh Bhardwaj, Pritam Singh Sandhu, Surjeet Singh Deol, Surjeet Singh Panesar (8)
Kenya 1964
Goans: Saude George, Anthony Vaz, Egbert Fernandes, Edgar Fernandes, Hilary Fernandes, Alu Mendonca, Silvester Fernandes. Reynold D’Souza, Leslie Pinto (9).
Sikhs: Surjeet Singh Jnr, Amar Singh Mangat; Sang Singh, Jagnandan Singh, Hardev Singh, Avtar Singh, Santokh Singh (7)
Kenya 1968
Goans: Reynold Pereira, Egbert Fernandes, Leo Fernandes, Hilary Fernandes, Silu Fernandes, Alu Mendonca (6).
Sikhs: Kirpal Singh Bhardwaj, Harvinder Singh Marwa,Jagmel Singh Rooprai, Jagjit Singh Kular, Davinder Singh Deegan, Santokh Singh Matharu, Amarjeet Singh Marwa, Surjeet Singh Panesar, ch); Avtar Singh Sohal (9)
Kenya 1972
Goans: Leo Fernandes, Reynolds Pereira, Phillips De Souza (3).
Sikhs: Amarjeet Singh Marwa, Avtar Singh Sohal, Brijinder Daved, Davinder Singh Deegan, Harvinder Singh Marwa,  Harvinderpal Singh Sibia,  Jagjit Singh Kular, Jagmel Singh Rooprai, Ranjit Singh Sehmi, Resham Singh Bains, Surjeet Singh Panesar, Surjit Singh Rihal, Tarlochan Singh Chana (13).
*Cyprian Fernandes is a former Chief Reporter of the Nation.






114 YouTube links with Kenyan History

https://youtu.be/NddXjk__uqE (5 minute slideshow of Kenya in the 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, the 2000s & 2010s)

2. https://youtu.be/eoeUKXEQ8qI (30 headline stories in Kenya from 1977 to 2002, and 22 images of Kenya from 1948 to 1998 - 9 minute slideshow)

3. https://youtu.be/L0SqxLuCkDc (Kenyan News, the News as reported in Kenya, and Events in Kenya in 1941, and from 1969 to 2019 - 10 minute slideshow)

4. https://youtu.be/McK_LZkxlIk (9 minute slideshow of 98 images of Kenya between around the year 1880 & the 2010s)

5. https://youtu.be/YlpYOEd6K9c ("Old School Kenya, the 1970s to the 2000s" - 9 minute slideshow of 98 images)

6. https://youtu.be/8ELlSn50dDs (12 minute slideshow of 126 images of Kenya, past and present)

7. https://youtu.be/ySwF1c3RP5k (3 minute slideshow of some famous global figures that have visited Kenya over the years)

8. https://youtu.be/jGxha6RwDuY (No. 1 of 5 minute slideshow of 99 images of Kenya through the years)

9. https://youtu.be/p6gfMpse3AE (No. 2 of 5 minute slideshow of 99 images of Kenya through the years)

10. https://youtu.be/KPO7mnCICAY (Slideshow of 94 images of Kenyan History covering the period 1901 to 2012)

11. https://youtu.be/aLAmcNNGOD0 (A sample of Asians and Whites who have blended very well into East Africa - 10 minute video footage compilation)

12. https://youtu.be/ikY8zJwnpjs (A sample of Whites who have blended very well in and across the African continent as a whole - 10 minute video footage compilation)

13. https://youtu.be/3TGl5qzp5iE (There was a time in Kenya, when there were higher standards - 9 minute video footage compilation from the 1960s, the 1970s and 1980s)

14. https://youtu.be/Gu4xtI0SC-g (Barack Obama speaking on Kenya/Africa just under 24 years ago in September 1995)

15. https://youtu.be/M0d5W08pQaY (Queen Elizabeth II & Prince Philip in Kenya in November 1983 - 10 minute video footage)

16. https://youtu.be/KVqlPhAZOcw (Boxing legend Muhammad Ali in Kenya in February 1980 - 10 minute video footage)

17. https://youtu.be/Na1rj5xPML8 (3 minute music combo of "Malaika" performed by Angelique Kidjo & Mariam Makeba at 3 different times)

18. https://youtu.be/jqnUVJSJmC0 (Both versions of "Mtoto si nguo" i.e. by George Mukabi and by Johnston Mukabi - 6 minutes)

19. https://youtu.be/hsjJvwHS2Mc ("Jamriambo" (2012), by Iddi Achieng - 5 minutes)

20. https://youtu.be/VCG5phbTn1I (The "Them Mushrooms" version of George Mukabi's "Mtoto si nguo" - 4 minutes)

21. https://youtu.be/inwo3PYZa60 (Jomo Kenyatta speaking in 1967, 1974 & 1973)

22. https://youtu.be/pI_oC5FgprU (Princess Margaret in East Africa & Mauritius in 1956)

23. https://youtu.be/VtKc7DV3CLo (Eight "Fuata Nyayo" songs from the Daniel T. arap Moi presidency in Kenya of 1978 to 2002 - 25 minutes)

24. https://youtu.be/r-SEFTH4V2g (5 minute slideshow of Kenya through the years)

25. https://youtu.be/iFEiI9IS8WE (Mwai Kibaki, TJ Mboya, Dr. J.G. Kiano, Lucy Lameck & Masumi Amoi in a UN documentary, circa 1964 - 6 minutes)

26. https://youtu.be/u0cLzt18eiA (The 1989 BBC documentary "Altitude, Alcohol & Adultery," on life in Colonial Kenya's "Happy Valley" - 52 minutes)

27. https://youtu.be/oxdqPZKnOic (29 minute audio interview of Thomas Joseph Mboya on NBC's "Meet the Press," the USA, 12th April 1959)

28. https://youtu.be/CKl5KTBuHnA (4 minute slideshow of Kenya through the years)

29. https://youtu.be/MWiWvo_ubC8 (3 minute slideshow of 40 postcards of the news as reported in Kenya between 1963 and 2003)

30. https://youtu.be/Uu_Io08nN58 ("Harambee," a 1974 feature on Marsabit town, Kenya - 19 minutes)

31. https://youtu.be/ZEO7LMn5pKI - 8 minutes of two slideshows of movies shot in Kenya i.e. "Something of Value" (1957) & "White Mischief" (1987)

32. https://youtu.be/3JgG-XK5J4E (4 minute slideshow of Princess Elizabeth and Prince Philip in Kenya in February 1952. She came a Princess & left a Queen)

33. https://youtu.be/kLDbtHZ3ODk (4 minute slideshow of 90 images of the visit to East Africa of October 1956 by Princess Margaret of the United Kingdom)

34. https://youtu.be/ZnOYHB6jfhM (4 minute slideshow of images of Kenya through the years)

35. https://youtu.be/a_A97fBU3e8 (5 minute video footage of three video clips of the lead up to Kenya's independence in 1963)

36. https://youtu.be/bKiSGmE_TyY (1 minute video footage of preparations in Kenya for the formal inauguration of Queen Elizabeth II of 2nd June 1953)

37. https://youtu.be/KPO7mnCICAY (5 minute slideshow of 94 images of Kenyan History covering the period 1901 to 2012)

38. https://youtu.be/tCFJLB3jZpQ (Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip in Kenya in November 1983 - 1 minute)

39. https://youtu.be/PUSD-t7EWAM (Then British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher in Kenya in January 1988 - 4 minutes)

40. https://youtu.be/-G5LmC-7U-c (Then Kenyan Vice-President Daniel T. arap Moi & then US President Richard Nixon at the White House, USA, 6th May 1969 - 2 minutes)

41. https://youtu.be/r-SEFTH4V2g (5 minute slideshow of Kenya through the years)

42. https://youtu.be/-Qpcz9gIR_I (The Kenya not normally seen on international media or social media - 10 minutes)

43. https://youtu.be/zTrr9hqU1aI (The Life and Times of Jomo Kenyatta - Nine minute slideshow of 97 images)

44. https://youtu.be/n77WCOrQaG8 (5 minute slideshow of 85 issues of Kenya's "Weekly Review" Magazine of 1975 to 1999)

45. https://youtu.be/XxD2jCNHiHA (Col. Muammar Gaddafi, Daniel T. arap Moi, Benjamin Mkapa, Omar al-Bashir, Pierre Buyoya, Jacob Zuma & Yoweri Museveni, together in Uganda in 2001 - 4 minutes)

46. https://youtu.be/aXRlIeEhyPA (Kenya, a province of the United States of America...? 16 video clips of the visits to Kenya of 17 prominent Americans since 1968 - 27 minutes)

47. https://youtu.be/GvZglXyxNRg (4 minute slideshow of 78 images of the 1984 movie "Sheena Queen of the Jungle," filmed in Kenya in 1983)

48. https://youtu.be/Mu9ZktYt43Q (5 minute slideshow of 104 images from the 1996 movie "The Ghost and the Darkness," about the construction of the Kenya-Uganda Railway Line (1895 to 1901), and the man-eater Lions of Tsavo)

49. https://youtu.be/fYVsUvBQr30 (10 minute video footage of scenes from the 1931 movie "Trader Horn" filmed in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania (then Tanganyika), Sudan & the Democratic Republic of Congo, then known as the Belgian Congo)

50. https://youtu.be/CB8pbkgY4Lg (24 minute video footage of nine video clips on Kenyan History)

51. https://youtu.be/p6gfMpse3AE (5 minute slideshow of 99 images of Kenya through the years)

52. https://youtu.be/wqfnD5kTP1A (Documentary on the Mau Mau Rebellion in Kenya of 1946 to 1959 - 1 hour & 24 minutes)

53. https://youtu.be/10OHN7qQ794 (Three audios of Jomo Kenyatta speeches & one Jomo Kenyatta era song - 10 minutes)

54. https://youtu.be/_ueH5Dg3U6Q (The 1983 Marlboro Safari Rally Kenya - 25 minute video footage)

55. https://youtu.be/UTjl8dkFEwI (The 1985 Marlboro Safari Rally Kenya - 52 minute video footage)

56. https://youtu.be/LIgXFpQp9FU (The 1982 Marlboro Safari Rally Kenya & the 1982 Marlboro Rallye Côte d'Ivoire - 30 minute video footage)

57. https://youtu.be/gNjJRlELoS8 (Kenya through the years - 5 minute slideshow)

58. https://youtu.be/2zbpGmV9I34 (16 minute feature of Kenya after the 1st August 1982 coup attempt)

59. https://youtu.be/drLjk63QbIU ("Introducing East Africa," a 19 minute feature of the year 1950)

60. https://youtu.be/aJrB6ufT3F4 ("Kenya murder mystery" (2009), about Tom Cholmondely & about Robert Njoya's killing in Kenya in 2006 - 50 minutes)

61. https://youtu.be/1tRekdusGs0 (The Kenya episode of "End of Empire," a year 1985 documentary on the end of colonial rule in Kenya - 63 minutes)

62. https://youtu.be/j4yfLrbOZP0 (“The Hunt for Kimathi,” one hour BBC documentary of the year 2004 on Mau Mau’s Dedan Kimathi)

63. https://youtu.be/PhxoisecvAk ("Black Man's Land: Images of Colonialism & Independence in Kenya": Part 1 i.e. "White Man's Country" - 51 minutes)

64. https://youtu.be/A84dOH219dg ("Black Man's Land: Images of Colonialism and Independence in Kenya" - Part 2 i.e. "Mau Mau" - 51 minutes)

65. https://youtu.be/Y5aREw9nN3Y ("Black Man's Land: Images of Colonialism and Independence in Kenya" - Part 3 i.e. "Kenyatta" - 51 minutes)

66. https://youtu.be/8QT7lk9tZBk (Feature from the year 1967 on "Harambee Africa" - 26 minutes)

67. https://youtu.be/U2OMZ-GVWUs (Feature from 1970 on Starehe Boys Centre Kenya - 26 minutes)

68. https://youtu.be/teAzdrUJb_I (Barack & Michelle Obama in Kenya, 1991 - 20 minutes)

69. https://youtu.be/eiHwPwfBQy0 (11 minutes of video footage of Kenya in the year 1967)

70. https://youtu.be/grD-mj_FUT4 (Princess Margaret of the United Kingdom in Kenya, 1956 - 8 minutes)

71. https://youtu.be/AOw2rjl2r04 (Part I, II & III of 81 minute video biography on Tom Mboya, by Kenya History & Biographies Ltd.)

72. https://youtu.be/7CcKoalQ6ZI (15 tracks of patriotic songs of the Moi era in Kenya - 54 minutes)

73. https://youtu.be/AAhuNIr2PFo (Seven tracks of gospel songs by different Kenyan tribes, composed & released in the Moi era - 23 minutes)

74. https://youtu.be/kKVWohFXH7U (Nine tracks of Kenyan patriotic songs of the Jomo Kenyatta era here in Kenya - 35 minutes)

75. https://youtu.be/IFxvUn75ydI (The 1978 twelve track tribute to Jomo Kenyatta by St. Stephens Church Choir - 37 minutes)

76. https://youtu.be/JZv5rX0UHYs (President Daniel T. arap Moi of Kenya & President Ronald Reagan of the USA at the White House, USA, 12th March 1987 - 20 minutes)

77. https://youtu.be/qJm_xZZyTrQ (Parting remarks by President Ronald Reagan of the USA & President Daniel T. arap Moi of Kenya, the White House, USA, 12th March 1987 - 7 minutes)

78. https://youtu.be/qLH36X5gGBw (48 minutes of Kenya in 1954, during the State of Emergency)

79. https://youtu.be/jEb3W9sNF2A (12 minute video footage of Kenya in the year 1919, yes you read right i.e. in the year 1919:-))

80. https://youtu.be/VtXrgwQdgQw (2 minute video footage of Kenya in the year 1919, yes you read right i.e. in the year 1919:-))

81. https://youtu.be/OARZvFqgV_k (24 minute video footage of Kenya in the year 1919, yes you read right i.e. in the year 1919:-))

82. https://youtu.be/7-FrHTdHHGk (Kenya, 1929: "Dance of the Nandi," 15 minute video footage)

83. https://youtu.be/CB8pbkgY4Lg (Nine video clips on Kenyan History - 24 minutes)

84. https://youtu.be/-zeTdslCufY (7 video clips, 5 of Jomo Kenyatta's Kenya & 2 of Daniel T. arap Moi's Kenya - 17 minutes)

85. https://youtu.be/a_A97fBU3e8 (Three video clips of the lead up to Kenya's independence in 1963 - 5 minutes)

86. https://youtu.be/X2neekVAKLM (5 minute slideshow of 96 postcards celebrating Kenya and other parts of the world)

87. https://youtu.be/5XUQbSdIPjo (Video clips of Kenya in 1964, 1965 & 1962, courtesy of British Pathe - 14 minutes)

88. https://youtu.be/TEi4AtfT4zc (5 minute video footage of Kenya in 1964, 1969, 1970, 1972, 1981 & 1983)

89. https://youtu.be/gUOjb7ryrEk (3 minute video footage of Nairobi, Kenya, circa 1973)

90. https://youtu.be/YUpx2-T6DEg (19 minute video footage of Nairobi, Kenya, in 1971)

91. https://youtu.be/Ktv261qxX1k (2 minute video footage of Nairobi in the years 1965/1966)

92. https://youtu.be/rXbuIMp1uN4 (6 minute video footage of the city of Nairobi, Kenya, in the late 1960s)

93. https://youtu.be/IcR7ddFXWN4 (3 minute slideshow of 68 images of Kenya's Safari Rally between the years 1953 and 2002)

94. https://youtu.be/UErp9qXXgik (5 minute slideshow of images of Kenya between about 1900 & about 1970, plus images of the Asian exodus from Kenya of 1968)

95. https://youtu.be/pb-l3SX3uOI (3 minute slideshow of 68 scenes from the 1985 movie "Out of Africa," filmed in Kenya and based on the memoirs of Karen Blixen)

96. https://youtu.be/p8kULpgUZ2w (Kenya through the years through images - six minutes of two slideshows)

97. https://youtu.be/mjoOBnOtpcM (14 minute video footage of a sample of life for settlers in Colonial Kenya in 1944)

98. https://youtu.be/3zZ4OyCyiA0 (15 minute video footage of scenes in Colonial Kenya in the year 1944)

99. https://youtu.be/tiH3H6tEocI (15 minute video footage of Naval activities, Mombasa, Kenya, 1944)

100. https://youtu.be/tpT3anp7SYw (8 minutes video footage from the year 1944, of the King's African Rifles (KAR) being entertained by the in-house KAR band/entertainment unit)

101. https://youtu.be/qjGJvc5pajM (Mombasa in the 1950s & Nairobi in the 1960s - 9 minute video footage)

102. https://youtu.be/Y-bpKkYU8ow (6 minute video footage of Kenya in the late 1950s/early 1960s)

103. https://youtu.be/QJc278s8QKU (3 minute video footage of a trip to Mt. Longonot, Kenya, of the late 1960s)

104. https://youtu.be/ZSJ-Z1p03bo (10 minute video footage of Kenya in 1975)

105. https://youtu.be/uRBOmFZ4Yio (29 minute feature of The Paul Hoefler Expedition to East & Central Africa of 1930)

106. https://youtu.be/ERah3vAgwe4 (East Africa in the 1950s, a 30 minute feature)

107. https://youtu.be/2mIYJ2VNe-k ("African Tale" - a 36 minute documentary on Kenya, South Africa & Africa, in the late 1950s)

108. https://youtu.be/ov-1dwK5YD8 (Nairobi - Mombasa by train i.e. East African Railways (EAR), around the late 1950s/early 1960s - 9 minute video footage)

109. https://youtu.be/T1J-kgPNNHs (16 minute video footage of the run-up to Kenya's independence in 1963)

110. https://youtu.be/KHAbn4ZYcFY (5 minute colour video footage of Independence in Kenya 1963 & of Kenya becoming a Republic on 12th December 1964)

111. https://youtu.be/GixKfghqrtE ("Wheels Across Africa" - 9 minute video footage of the Kenya leg of the Africa Motor Expedition of 1936 sponsored by Dodge Motor Vehicles)

112. https://youtu.be/_SlwbVZk2-s (8 minute video footage of The Furlong Expedition in East & Central Africa, 1929)

113. https://youtu.be/XwvZWRN_5No (9 minute video footage of East Africa's King's African Rifles (KAR) in training in 1942)

114. https://youtu.be/rTAlzWsIwW8 (Part 1 to 6 of "Murder at Got Alila," a year 2017 Citizen TV Kenya re-take of Dr. Robert Ouko's murder of 1990 - 2 hours & 38 minutes)