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A new look at the History of the Portuguese in Goa, the good, the bad, and they ugly

 "Sharma, Susheel Kumar. “Revisiting Portuguese Colonization in India”, Madhya Bharati: Research Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, No. 72, January-June 2017, pp. 135-156. ISSN 0974-0066." by Susheel K Sharma

The Doctrine of Padroado (jus patrionatus established by the Papal Bulls of 1514) provided the authority for missionary work to be in the hands of the Portuguese Crown in areas where Portugal claimed political rights. (vgweb.org) The first Luz church was built by the Portuguese in 1516 in Thirumayilai (Mylapore). Missionaries of the newly founded Society of Jesus (1534) were sent to Goa and the Portuguese colonial government supported the mission with incentives like rice donations for the poor, good positions in the Portuguese colonies for the middle class, and military support for local rulers. (Daus 61-66)

St. Francis Xavier was very clear in his mind when he wrote: “I want to free the poor Hindus from the stranglehold of the Brahmins and destroy the places where evil spirits are worshipped.” (Francis Xavier qtd by Michael Kerrigan) 138@e/; Hkkjrh Denison Ross writes: “It may be recalled … that after the arrival of the Franciscan missionaries in 1517 Goa had become the centre of an immense propaganda, and already in 1540 by the orders of the king of Portugal all the Hindu temples in the island of Goa had been destroyed.” (18) Fr. Diogo da Borba and his advisor Vicar General, Miguel Vaz drew plans for converting the Hindus to Christianity. “In a letter dated March 8, 1546 King João III ordered the Viceroy to forbid Hinduism ('Gentile idolatry') in all the Portuguese possessions of India, destroy Hindu temples, prohibit the celebration of Hindu feasts, expel all Brahmins and severely punish anyone making Hindu image.”

(Saraiva 348) “The viceroy, D. Constantino de Bragança passed a decree in 1559 ordering the destruction of remaining temples and idols.” (Mendonça 260) However, Victor Ferrao, Dean Patriarchal Seminary of Rachol, disputes the claim by saying: “… the word Hindu does not exist in the entire sixteenth century Indo-Portuguese historiography.” (nizgoenkar.org) He further holds: “Though the temples that were demolished were not Hindu, but [the] one(s) that belonged to different cults that have united into Hinduism of today the Hindu community is certainly carrying the pain of this false impression … .” (nizgoenkar.org) The Kapaleeswarar (Shiva) temple (Mylapore, Chennai) was destroyed by the Catholic Portuguese in 1561 and in its place came up St. Thomas Cathedral (Santhome Church) where some fragmentary inscriptions from the old temple are still there.

In 1566 António de Noronha (Bishop of Elvas) issued an order applicable to the entire area under Portuguese rule: “I hereby order that in any area owned by my master, the king, nobody should construct a Hindu temple and such temples already constructed should not be repaired without my permission. If this order is transgressed, such temples shall be, destroyed and the goods in them shall be used to meet expenses of holy deeds, as punishment of such transgression.” (qtd by de Souza vgweb.org )

It is claimed that the Jesuits destroyed 280 Hindu temples in Salsette and the Franciscan friars 300 in Bardez in 1567. In 1583, Hindu temples at Assolna and Cuncolim were destroyed through army action. (de Souza vgweb.org) Fatima Gracias writes: “It is true a considerable number of the Goan temples were erased by the Portuguese rulers but some were built in the 18th century.” (“Impact” 45) Even mosques were broken to raise churches. On the authority of a native Muslim historian, Danvers writes, “[The Portugese] demolished a mosque [in Cochin] and made a Christian church of it” in 1450 (p 29); they “set the 'Jama'- masjid' on fire” in Calicut in the month of Ramadan, Dec 1509. (p. 31)

St. Francis Xavier hated Brahmins for he considered them to be the biggest hurdle in his proselytizing mission: “[The Brahmins] are the most perverse people in the world, and of them was written the psalmist's prayer: De gente non sancta, ab homine iniquo et doloso eripe me [“From an unholy race, and wicked and crafty men, deliver me, Lord”]. They do not know what it is to tell the truth but forever plot how to lie subtly and deceive their poor, ignorant followers.... Were it not for these Brahmins all the heathen would be converted... .” (qtd by Pastor Don Elmore) Timothy J. Coates in his Convicts and Orphans: Forced and State-Sponsored Colonizers in the Portuguese Empire, 1550- 1755 writes: “The Pai dos Cristãos enforced a series of laws, known as the Laws in Revisiting Portuguese Colonization in India@139 Favour of Christianity, aimed at the forced or coerced conversion of a number of South Asian communities under Portuguese political control.” (167)

In his book Conversions and Citizenry: Goa Under Portugal, 1510-1610 Délio de Mendonça, writes: “[The viceroy, D. Pedro Mascarenhas (1554-1555)] promulgated several laws in favour of conversion and ordered them to be read on the streets of Goa. These orders banned all the Hindu ceremonies in Portuguese territory, and demanded the separation of Hindu orphans from their relatives so that they might be brought up in Christian customs.” (258) Timothy J. Coates gives details of the laws to promote Christianity by adopting orphans malevolently: “In 1559, King D. Sebastião passed a law … stating that [the children] without mothers, fathers, or grandparents and who “were not old enough to have an understanding of reason” should be turned over to the juiz dos órfãos and placed in the College of São Paulo, where they were to be baptized. … In 1567, the law was reinterpreted by Bishop D. Jorge Semedo to read that being fatherless alone was sufficient grounds to declare a child an orphan and separate him or her from remaining family, even if the child's mother and other relatives opposed it. ... Some orphans attempted to evade this new understanding by marrying but under fourteen and under twelve years of age were not allowed to marry and were forcibly converted as well. This 140@e/; Hkkjrh law was enforced by having all such children turned over to the captain of the area (that is, Goa, Bardez and Salsette). The captain entrusted the child to the authorities of the College of St. Paul. Anyone hiding such children was threatened with loss of his or her property and indefinite exile.” (166) The orphans were being eyed by the Portuguese “not only by desire to save their souls but also by anxiety to take charge of their estates.” (Priolkar 128)

Various measures were introduced to separate the Christians from others. Several decrees were issued to prevent the Christians from following non-Christian customs and prevent Hindus from following many of their customs. (Gracias Kaleidoscope 47) Laws were passed banning Christians from keeping Hindus in their employ and the public worship of Hindus was deemed unlawful. All the persons above 15 years of age were compelled to listen to Christian preaching, failing which they were punished. Historian Anant Priolkar gives details of how Hindus were forced to assemble periodically in churches to listen to the refutation of their religion. (123-25)

In order to humiliate the locals the Viceroy ordered that Hindu Pandits and doctors be disallowed from entering the capital city on horseback or palanquins, the violation of which entailed a fine. Successive violations resulted in imprisonment. Christian palanquin-bearers were forbidden from carrying Hindus as passengers. Christian agricultural labourers were forbidden to work in the lands owned by Hindus, and Hindus forbidden to employ Christian labourers. (Priolkar 114-149) Similarly Délio de Mendonça on the basis of various historical documents writes: “The viceroy, D. Constantino de Bragança, implemented mercilessly all the decrees in favour of conversion. He promulgated a few more, even stronger than those of his predecessors. He passed a decree in 1559 ordering the destruction of remaining temples and idols. Bragança expelled harmful Brahmans from Goa in 1560. To those who had immovable property he gave one month to sell it; the others had to leave Goa immediately. In default they would be sent to the galleys after forfeiting their goods. Under the same threat he ordered all the goldsmiths … to bring [their women folk and children and goods] back to the island or abandon the land.” (260)

The first provincial council held in 1567 prevented 5 women from seeking help of non-Christian midwives because the latter used some indigenous herbal medicines for reducing the labour pain and for safely delivering the baby. On September 22, 1570 an order proclaiming that the Hindus embracing Christianity would be exempted from land taxes for a period of 15 years and prohibiting the use of Hindu names or surnames was issued. (vgweb.org)

Hindu widows and daughters were encouraged to convert to Christians with the bait of the departed husband's property but if they did not the property was given to the nearest relative who converted. The slaves of the infidels who converted to Christianity were to be freed by the proclamation of 1592. Sebastião in 1559 decreed that property could be inherited by the sons, grandsons or other relatives of a deceased Hindu only if they had converted to Christianity. On the basis of various records Priolkar gives details of racial discrimination that continued even after conversion not only in matters of appointments, promotion, social gatherings but also in hospitals. (143-146)

The Portuguese were the first European colonizers to arrive in India but the last Revisiting Portuguese Colonization in India@141 to leave. In contrast to the other European colonisers in India the Portuguese tried to accept India as their land and tried to assimilate themselves with the native inhabitants. Bemoaning their loss of identity Van Diemen, the Dutch governor, wrote: “Most of the Portuguese in India look upon this region as their fatherland, and think no more about Portugal. They drive little or no trade thither, but content themselves with the port-to-port trade of Asia, just as if they were natives thereof and had no other country.” (qtd by Pearson, 87).

It is but natural that the Portuguese tried to do many “good things” for India. For example, they introduced several crops like potato, tomato, sugar potato, capsicum and chillies, tobacco, red kidney bean (rajma), coffee, tapioca, groundnuts, corn, papaya, pineapple, guava, avocado, cashew, sapota (cheeku) and superior plantation varieties of coconut. They not only constructed new roads and developed irrigation facilities but also helped the traders in marketing their products in the entire Indian Ocean.

They also introduced various cuisines like toasts and sandwiches, cottage cheese, vindaloo, balchao, sorpotel, sausages, sweet Goan wine and various kinds of loaves like round gutli and flat pav. They were the only colonizers who encouraged marital relationships with the colonised Indians. They also introduced the system of drilling bodies of infantry, grouped and disciplined upon the Spanish model in the 1630s.

At sea the Portuguese were carriers of improved techniques. They also introduced multidecked ships, designed to ride out Atlantic gales and that could carry a heavier armament. They also contributed in the field of music, dance, painting, carving and sculpture. Printing operations were started by them in Goa in 1556; books were printed in Tamil and Devanagari fonts on imported paper from Portugal around 1579; the first ever catalogue of the Indian plants was published in 1563; 86 dictionaries, 115 grammar books and 45 journals in 73 languages of India were produced by the Portuguese.

Fr. Thomas Stephens (1549-1619) produced the first “Konkani Grammar” and Fr. Diogo Ribero (1560-1633) published the first dictionary in Konkani in two volumes in 1626. Despite all their “good works” and their efforts at assimilation the colonial impact of Portuguese in the form of official language is nowhere to be found in today's India.

Like the French their colonies were comparatively small but French is being used as an Official language at least in Pondicherry even today (in 2017) but Portuguese has been banished from Goa/India for ever. The reasons need to be explored in the sociohistorical context. It may be seen as a reaction to the repressive measures adopted by the Portuguese to suppress the proud locals' mother tongue. At the urging of Franciscans, the Portuguese viceroy forbade the use of Konkani in 1684. He decreed that within three years, the local people should speak the Portuguese tongue and use it in all their dealings in Portuguese territories. The penalty for violation was imprisonment. The same decree provided that all the non-Christian symbols along with books written in local languages should be destroyed. This decree was confirmed by the King of Portugal three years later. In 1812, the Archbishop of Goa decreed that Konkani should be restricted in schools. In 1847, this prohibition was extended to seminaries. In 1869, Konkani was completely banned in schools. Konkani became the lingua de criados (“language of servants”). In an effort to eradicate indigenous cultural practices such as observing ceremonies, fasts, 142@e/; Hkkjrh music, festivals, dresses, foods and greetings, the laws and prohibitions of the inquisition were invoked in the edict of 1736 whereby over 42 Hindu practices were prohibited, including anointing foreheads with sandalwood paste and rice, greeting people with Namaste, singing Konkani vovios (Limericks) in marriages, (and songs on festivals, and social and religious ceremonies like child birth, singing of bhajans and kirtan), playing of native musical instruments, celebrating the birth of deities like Lord Krishna, exchanging areca nuts, betel leaves and flowers on weddings, distribution of fried puris, the practice of massaging the bridal couple with oil, ground saffron, coconut milk, rice flour and powder of abolim leaves, inviting relatives of the bride and groom in marriage ceremonies, presence of a priest (Bottos) to perform any kind of religious ceremony (including thread ceremony and marriages) in Hindu households, erection of pandals and the use of festoons, serving of ceremonial feasts at the birth of children and for the peace of the souls of the dead, fasting on ekadashi day (though fasting done according to the Christian principles was allowed), wearing of the Brahminical ponytail (úikhâ), sacred caste thread and dhoti (pudvem) by Hindu men either in public or in their houses, cholis by Hindu women, sandals, removing the slippers while entering the church and growing of the sacred Tulsi (basil) plant in houses, compounds, gardens or any other place. (Newman 17) The Christians were forbidden from eating boiled rice without salt as done by Hindus. (Gracias Kaleidoscope 48) As severe decrees were issued against Hindu festivities and celebrations they, in order to escape punishment, started celebrating them secretly during night time. Even the entry of Hindu Joshis, Jogees and Gurus of temples was banned as they were perceived as a threat. In the fourth decade of the 20th century, the State ordered that Goans should appear wearing pants in all towns of Goa, in headquarters of the New Conquests and ferry wharfs of Betim, Durbate, Rachol, Revisiting Portuguese Colonization in India@143 Savordem, Dona Paula and Piligação. However, non-Christians were allowed to wear a coat along with pudvem instead of pants. (Idem) “The same Council decreed that Christians should not ask non-Christians to paint their idols neither ask Hindu goldsmiths to make candlesticks, crosses and other Church requirements.” (Gracias Kaleidoscope 56) Polygamy was prohibited in 1567 and Monogamy was imposed on non-Christians. (Robinson 2000, Saraiva 351, vgweb.org) though Hindu men were permitted by their Codigo dos Usos e Costumes to have more than one wife in certain conditions (Gracias Kaleidoscope 143-144) Those who considered these impositions unlawful and dared to oppose the regulations were severely punished. H P Salomon and I S D Sassoon claim that between the 1561 and in 1774, at least 16,202 persons (of whom nearly 90% were natives) were brought to trial by the Inquisition. This being the number of the documents burnt at the suggestion of the Portuguese Viceroy in India and the approval of Prince Regent João. (Saraiva 345-346) These figures present only an incomplete picture as is clear from the following remarks of Salomon and Sassoon: “Research on the 17th century has not yet been completed as far as quantitative and statistic studies are concerned” (Saraiva 351) and “The last phase of the Goan Inquisition, 1801-1812, which saw 202 persons sentenced, has not yet been analyzed.” (Saraiva 353) Terrorising Mission Acting upon the requests of Vicar general Miguel Vaz in 1543 and St. Francis 6 Xavier in 1546 João (John) III installed the Inquisition in Goa on 2 March 1560 with jurisdiction over Goa and the rest of the Portuguese empire in Asia. Though it was officially repressed in 1774 by Marquis of Pombal, Queen Maria I reinstated it in 1778. It finally came to an end in 1812 by a royal decree as a consequence of Napoleon's Iberian Peninsular campaign. It was “the only tribunal outside of Portugal … [with a] jurisdiction over the entire 'Orient' from Eastern Africa to Timor.” (Saraiva 174) Perhaps because of their Catholic fervour, the Portuguese inquisitors in Goa became the most 144@e/; Hkkjrh severely fanatic, cruel and violent in all Portuguese territories. It was headed by a Portuguese judge who was answerable only to the General Counsel of the Lisbon Inquisition and handed down punishments as per the Standing Rules that governed that institution though its proceedings were kept secret. The Inquisition prosecuted apostate New Christians (Marranos) as well as their suspect descendants (practising the religion of their ancestors in secret), Goan Sephardic Jews who had fled from Spain and Portugal to escape Spanish or Portuguese Inquisition and the non-converts who broke prohibitions against the observance of Hindu or Muslim rites or interfered with Portuguese attempts to convert non-Christians to Catholicism. The observance of former customs after conversion was declared un-Christian and heretical. Those accused of religious heresies were the prime targets of the death penalty. (Silva and Fuchs 4–5) The records speak of the demand for hundreds of prison cells to accommodate the accused. (Hunter Imperial) Inquisitions helped the Portuguese in preventing defection back to the original faiths as it provided “protection” to those who converted to Christianity. A pardon for punishment could be bargained in lieu of property. According to Indo-Portuguese historian Teotonio R de Souza, grave abuses were practised in Goa. (91) Historian Alfredo de Mello in his Memoirs of Goa “has given all the spine-chilling details relating to anti-pagan, anti-heathen, and anti-Hindu 'Christian Compassion' during the course of Holy Inquisition in Goa from 1560 to 1812.” (qtd by V Sundaram) De Mello describes the performers of Goan inquisition as “nefarious, fiendish, lustful, corrupt religious orders which pounced on Goa for the purpose of destroying paganism and introducing the true religion of Christ” (qtd by V Sundaram) R N Saksena writes “in the name of the religion of peace and love, the tribunal(s) practiced cruelties to the extent that every word of theirs was a sentence of death.” (24) It was not always for catholic reasons but also because of the personal rivalries, prejudices and jealousies that a person was sent to inquisition as is evident from Dellon's case. (20-24) Dellon, a 24 year-old Roman Catholic Frenchman, practising medicine in Daman was apparently charged and imprisoned by the order of the Inquisition at Goa for not kissing the painted image of “the Holy Virgin or some other saint” (12) on the small alms boxes as was the custom of the local Catholics, for asking a patient to part with the “ivory image of the Holy Virgin” (12) that he had in his bed before the operation, describing the crucifix “as a piece of Revisiting Portuguese Colonization in India@145 ivory” (14), refusing to wear a rosary (15) and questioning the infallibility of the inquisitors in a friendly conversation with a priest (15-16). However, the real reason for his imprisonment and final banishment from Daman/Goa by the order of the Inquisition was the ill-conceived malice and jealousy of the Governor of Daman, Manuel Furtado de Mendoza and that of “a black priest, Secretary of the Holy Office.” (21) Both of them harboured a secret passion for a lady whom the doctor admired and visited; the lady also perhaps doted on the doctor. The Governor dissembled as a friend and reported private conversations to the Inquisition at Goa because he wanted him to be away from his secret love about which the doctor was ignorant. The priest lived opposite to the lady's house “and had repeatedly solicited her to gratify his infamous passion, even when at confession.” (21) Dellon thus reports his first hand experience in the inquisition prison cell: “… I every morning heard the cries of those whom the torture was administered, and which was inflicted so severely, that I have seen many persons of both sexes who have been crippled by it … . No distinctions of rank, age or sex are attended to in this Tribunal. Every individual is treated with equal severity; and when the interest of Inquisition requires it, all are alike tortured in almost perfect nudity.” (93-94) Lust of the clergy was another reason for sending somebody for Inquisition is borne out by the following reported confession: “In 1710, a dying priest told his confessor that he and the other priests in his diocese had regularly threatened their female penitents that they would turn them over to the Inquisition unless they had sex with them!” (Kramer and Sprenger) Historian Alexandre Herculano in his “Fragment about the Inquisition” also hints at the perversity of the Inquisitors: “… The terrors inflicted on pregnant women made them abort. ... Neither the beauty or decorousness of the flower of youth, nor the old age, so worthy of compassion in a woman, exempted the weaker sex from the brutal ferocity of the supposed defenders of the religion. ... There were days when seven or eight were submitted to torture. These scenes were reserved for the Inquisitors after dinner. It was post-prandial entertainment. Many a time during those acts, the inquisitors compared notes in the appreciation of the beauty of the human form. While the unlucky damsel twisted in the intolerable pains of torture, or fainted in the intensity of the agony, one Inquisitor applauded the angelic touches of her face, another the brightness of her eyes, another, the voluptuous contours of her breast, another the shape of her hands. In this conjuncture, men of blood transformed themselves into real artists!” (qtd by Alfredo de Mello) Inquisition affected the economic life of the people as well. On one hand it was an easy way to take control of somebody's hard earned money/property on the other it was bringing down productivity and ruining business. Commenting on the importance of the confiscation of the properties of the accused Saraiva writes: “From the economic point of view, the Inquisition was not a commercial enterprise but a vehicle for distributing money and other property to its numerous personnel – a form of pillage, as in war, albeit more bureaucratized. The Inquisitorial army, whose members shared the seigniorial and warrior mentality of the Portuguese fidalgos in India, maintained themselves by plundering the property of wealthy bourgeois” (Saraiva 187) Saraiva 146@e/; Hkkjrh agrees with Luis da Cunha (1662-1749) who lays the blame at the Inquisitors' door for “the decadence of textile manufacture in the Beiras and Tras-osMontes provinces, the d e c l i n e o f s u g a r production in Brazil.” (Saraiva 221) Doubts about Inquisition were being expressed even back home as Inquisition could ruin the prospects of the Portuguese empire if the New Christians were discriminated and persecuted: “If the Portuguese Inquisition continues unchecked: It will spell ruin of Portugal and even part of Spain. For in all of Portugal there is not a single merchant (hombre de negocios) who is not of this Nation. These people have their correspondents in all lands and domains of the king our lord. Those of Lisbon send kinsmen to the East Indies to establish trading-posts where they receive the exports from Portugal, which they barter for merchandise in demand back home. They have outposts in the Indian port cities of Goa and Cochin and in the interior. In Lisbon and India nobody can handle the trade in merchandise except persons of this Nation. Without them, His Majesty will no longer be able to make a go of his Indian possessions, and will lose the 600,000 ducats a year in duties which finance the whole enterprise – from equipping the ships to paying the seamen and soldiers.” (Zellorigo qtd by Saraiva 145) French writer, historian and philosopher François-Marie Arouet Voltaire attacked the established Catholic Church and lamented that Goa is inglorious for Inquisitions: “Goa est malheureusement célèbre par son inquisition, également contraire à l'humanité et au commerce. Les moines portugais firent accroire que le peuple adorait le diable, et ce sont eux qui l'ont servi.” (Goa is unfortunately nefarious for its inquisition, equally contrary to humanity and commerce. The Portuguese monks made us believe that the people worshiped the devil but it was they who served him. Voltaire, 1066) Portuguese East India Company The royal trading house, Casa da Índia, founded around 1500 used to manage Portuguese trade with India. However, trade to India was thrown open to Portuguese nationals by 1570 as the Casa was incurring huge losses. As few took up the offer, the Casa started selling India trading contracts to private Portuguese merchant consortiums in 1578, granting them a monopoly for one year. The annual contract system was abandoned in 1597 and the royal monopoly was resumed. However, the vigorous Revisiting Portuguese Colonization in India@147 competition with Dutch VOC and English East India Company after 1598 forced the king to experiment to defend the Portuguese business propositions. As a result in 1605 Conselho da Índia was created to bring affairs in Portuguese India but it was dissolved in 1614. In the wake of the severe competition with other European companies in August 1628 the Companhia do commércio da Índia (or Companhia da Índia Oriental), organized along the lines of Dutch and English companies, came into existence by a charter of King Philip III. The idea of a chartered private Portuguese East India Company was first broached and promoted by a Portuguese New Christian merchant Duarte Gomes Solis who lived in Madrid. The Company was granted a monopoly on trade in coral, pepper, cinnamon, ebony and cowrie shells and could be extended to other items upon request. It had full administrative and juridical privileges, including the right to keep all spoils from seizures of Dutch and English ships. “Chapter Ten of the rule book of the Company enacts that, in case of Inquisitorial confiscation, the confiscated assets would continue to belong to the Company and would revert to the heir of the convicted person in the third generation. The subscribers of the capital investment who furnished more than a specified sum were to be ennobled.” (Saraiva 200) The Company proved unprofitable as the overseas Portuguese merchants rejected the new Company's authority. The Company was dissolved in 1633. “On the initiative and through the mediation of the Jesuits, the New Christians offered to finance once again an “East India Company” on the model of the British and Dutch East India Companies, in exchange for a general amnesty and drastic reforms in Inquisitorial procedure. The proposal was drawn up at the beginning of 1673 by a Jesuit, Father Baltasar da Costa, Provincial of the Malabar coast of India and presented to the king by another Jesuit, his confessor. … The regent Pedro … gave his consent… .” (Saraiva 215) Luso-Indians To meet the natural requirement of women for the Portuguese men in the growing powerful Portuguese presence in the Arab sea and Indian Ocean Albuquerque, under his policy Politica dos Casamentos, encouraged marriages between Portuguese men “originally from lowest classes in Portugal including some convicted criminals” (Rocha, 38) and native women as the number of Portuguese females who came with Portuguese officials (renois), those who were born to Portuguese parents in India (castiças), others who came on ships (aventureiras) and women of mixed blood (both mestiços and mulatas) in 16th century was very limited. Two hundred such marriages were arranged within two months of the Goan conquest. However, the marriages were not approved until the women were baptized as Christians and those who converted were given extra privileges and gifts by their husbands and rulers as rewards. (Rao 42) The primary motive of such arrangements was to divert Hindu property to Portuguese and to create a new community that would identify itself with Portuguese power but would be happy to be in this region; this would also create a white identity which in turn would perpetuate the Portuguese rule in the region. The men involved were not gentlemen but mainly rank and file (like soldiers, masons, carpenters and other artisans) and the exiled convicts (like gypsies, prostitutes, vagabonds and beggars called degredos) on account 148@e/; Hkkjrh 7 of the law of the Sesmarias and “Beggars' Law” in Portugal . It is said that Albuquerque gave dowry (18000 reis, clothes, rice, a house, slave women, cattle and a piece of land) to each of such couples. Such men as took native wives were known as casados; they had special privileges as Albuquerque treated these women as his own daughters and men his sons-in-law. They were given pay and groceries (soldo e mantimento), separate quarters (bairros) in urban areas and locally important positions such as tanadar and tabelio. Despite this many soldiers preferred to have only casual relationship with native women who came from various social groups viz. those associated with soldiers and administrators from the proceeding Adil Shahi administrators, fair Mooresses and slaves, Mestiços and temple dancers. As Albuquerque was very conscious of colour he advised his men to marry fair Hindu and Muslim women and encouraged them to avoid dark complexioned Malabaris. (Bethencourt 210) Though these women invariably were converted to Christianity yet there was some opposition to such marriages from certain quarters in the Church and the Government. However, the state reiterated its stand and policy in the form of alvara issued in 1684. The estimated number of casados in Portuguese Asia was 6000 in 1600. Many noblemen (fidalgos) who migrated to India had left their wives and children back home and had either kept native women as mistresses or had developed lasting relationships with temple dancers (devadasi/ baidadeiras). “In the 16th century, Chinese, Korean and Japanese slaves were also brought to Portugal and the Portuguese settlements, including Goa.” (lydiafellowshipinternational.org) A large number of them were brought for sexual purposes, as noted by the Church in 1555. (Leupp 51-54) King Sebastião of Portugal feared that “it was having a negative effect on Catholic proselytisation since the trade in Japanese slaves was growing to massive proportions. At his command it was banned in 1571.” (lydiafellowshipinternational.org) In order to prevent men from indulging in lustful and sinful lives, to bring down the number of mixed marriages in India, to transfer their surplus population in Portugal to other places and to increase Portuguese presence in the colonies they shifted Portuguese girl orphans (Órfãs d'El-Rei or “Orphans of the King”) at the expense of the crown to Portuguese colonies in India (particularly Goa) “to marry either Portuguese settlers or natives with high status.” (worldheritageofportugueseorigin.com) Not only did several batches of such girls arrive between 1545 and 1595 in Goa but also “the system apparently continued to function intermittently until the (early) eighteenth century.” (Coates 43) Those who married such girls were given various incentives ranging from captaincy of forts to trading agencies along with dowry. Despite this all the girl orphans could not find “suitable husbands” as most of them “lacked good looks” besides being “old and sickly.” The Inquisition came into existence to punish Hindus and Muslims around the same time. In 1620, an order was passed to prohibit the Hindus from performing their marriage rituals. “A document available at Torre do Tombo states that in the middle of the seventeenth century the Municipal Council of Goa (Senado) requested the Portuguese king to decree that 'no Brahmin or Chardo who is rich or has property might marry his daughter to any one except to a Portuguese born in Portugal and such people must leave their property to their daughters'” (Gracias Kaleidoscope 41) It may be Revisiting Portuguese Colonization in India@149 noted that the higher castes in Goa and elsewhere practiced Sati for various reasons. No wonder that caste Hindu women burnt themselves (performed Sati) in such an atmosphere to save their honour and save their families from humiliation. Again, women are generally considered as a prize catch after a war. If women burn themselves as a strategy (known as scorched earth policy in the warfare) the soldiers do not get anything and a discontent among them grows. In this light it can be understood easily that Albuquerque's banning of sati in Goa (Ross 18, De Souza 70) was not for having any compassion for Hindu women but to have an easy access to the women to meet the requirements of his men and complete his agenda. (Gracias Kaleidoscope 44) Such marriages were intended to increase the wealth of Portuguese and the number of Christians by conversion, to have enough persons for Indian army loyal to Portugal and to enlarge white colony. The mixed-race children bore no stigma of inferiority to the Portuguese. Today Luso-Indians are viewed as a sub-caste of Anglo-Indians. While Carton views these relationships in the absence of European women as experiments in the colonial “laboratories where new social categories and political structures were produced by colonial realities rather than by metropolitan orders” (Carton 3) Boxer considers them a political necessity: “Sexual politics of interracial liaison building in the private sphere were, therefore, as politically important as the military and economic manoeuvring in the public sphere.” (Boxer, 12) The Decline of Portuguese Denison Ross in Cambridge History of India writes: “… if one of [Turks'] fleets had succeeded in driving the Portuguese out of their fortresses on the Indian coast, the establishment of Christian powers in India might have been indefinitely postponed” (27) but that did not happen. Every born person has to die and those at the pinnacle once have to come down. So was the case Portuguese rule in India. Penrose writes: “In so far as any one date can be taken as of prime importance in the ruin of Portuguese empire, it is 6 May 1542, when Francis Xavier set foot ashore at Goa. From then on the Jesuits did their worst, using every form of bribery, threat, and torture to effect a conversion.” (14) Discussing the issue Denison Ross writes: “The ultimate decline of Portuguese power in India was due primarily to two causes: first, the encouragement of mixed marriages at home and abroad, and secondly, religious intolerance. The former policy had been adopted … by the great Albuquerque, who probably foresaw that constant drain on the male population of a relatively small country like his own must ultimately lead to a shortage of man-power; the latter was pushed to its utmost extreme by the zealous fervour of the Jesuits who selected Goa as their second headquarters outside Rome, soon after the foundation of their order. The arrival of St Francisco Xavier in India in 1542 was an event of the most far-reaching importance and laid the foundations of the ecclesiastical supremacy in Portuguese India which sapped the financial resources and undermined the civil administration of its Governor.” (17-18) The famous historian and writer Teófilo Braga wrote: “there are two dates which signal the downfall of the nationality: 1536, when the Inquisition was inaugurated in Portugal, due to the instigations of the Emperor Charles V, of Spain, and with the loss of the freedom of 150@e/; Hkkjrh conscience, silencing the poet who had most fought on its behalf, Gil Vicente; and 1580, the national independence becomes extinct on account of the invasion of Philip II (of Spain) who imposed his dynastic rights.” (qtd by Alfredo De Mello) On the political front, the Dutch entered into an alliance with the English for ousting the Portuguese from Kerala waters in 1619 and in 1629 the Portuguese lost a war to Shah Jahan at Hugli (Kolkata). Gradually the Dutch and English drove the Portuguese from the Arabian Sea and Malabar fell to the Dutch in 1641. In 1652, Sivappa Nayaka of the Nayaka Dynasty defeated the Portuguese and drove them away from Mangalore. Quilon fell to Dutch in 1661, followed by Cranganore in 1662. The islands of Bombay (later to be leased to British East India Company) were gifted to Charles II of England as dowry on his marriage with Catherine of Portugal in 1662. In January 1663 the combined forces of the Dutch and the Zamorin of Calicut defeated the Portuguese at Cochin. This ended 165 years of Portuguese rule in Kerala and they were pushed to Goa, Daman and Diu. th In 20 century Tristão de Bragança Cunha, a French-educated Goan engineer and the founder of Goa Congress Committee in Portuguese India resisted the Portuguese rule in Goa. Cunha released a booklet called 'Four Hundred Years of Foreign Rule', and a pamphlet, 'Denationalisation of Goa', intended to sensitise Goans to the oppression of Portuguese rule. In 1954 India took control of Dadra and Nagar Haveli which Portugal had acquired in 1779. The Portuguese rule in India came to an end on 19th December 1961 when the Governor of Portuguese India signed the instrument of surrender of Goa, Daman and Diu against the Radio directives (dated 14 December 1961) of the Portuguese Prime Minister Salazar and the presidential directive for adopting scorched earth policy. However, the surrender was not accepted by the Portuguese Govt. Entire Portugal mourned the loss and even Christmas was not celebrated with traditional gaiety. Goans were encouraged to emigrate to Portugal rather than remain under Indian rule by offering them Portuguese citizenship. This offer was amended in 2006 to include only those who had been born before 19 December 1961. Salazar predicted that “difficulties will arise for both sides when the programme of the Indianization of Goa begins to clash with its inherent culture ... It is therefore to be expected that many Goans will wish to escape to Portugal from the inevitable consequences of the invasion” (Salazar 18659) The Portuguese national radio station Emissora Nacional was used to encourage sedition and to urge Goans to resist and oppose the Indian administration. In order to weaken the Indian presence in Goa clandestine resistance movements in Goa were initiated and the Goan diaspora communities were urged to resist and oppose the Indian administration both through, general resistance and armed rebellion to weaken the Indian presence in Goa. The Portuguese government chalked out a plan called the 'Plano Gralha' covering Goa, Daman and Diu, for paralysing port operations at Mormugao and Bombay by planting bombs in some of the ships anchored at the ports. (timesofindia.indiatimes.com) On 20 June 1964, Casimiro Monteiro, a Portuguese PIDE (Polícia Internacional e de Defesa do Estado) agent of Goan descent, along with Ismail Dias, a Goan settled in Portugal, executed a series of bombings in Goa. (pressdisplay.com) Revisiting Portuguese Colonization in India@151 Relations between India and Portugal thawed only in 1974, when Goa was finally recognised as part of India by Portugal. Portuguese Archbishop-Patriarch Alvernaz who had left for Portugal soon after Goan merger and had remained the titular Patriarch of Goa resigned in 1975. The first native-born Archbishop of Goa, Raul Nicolau Gonçalves (who was also the Patriarch of the East Indies), was appointed in 1978 though the Portuguese ruled in India for 450 years. Henry Louis Vivian Derozio (18 April 1809 – 26 December 1831), the poet who wrote in English, is generally considered to be an Anglo-Indian though he comes from of mixed Portuguese stock. Derozio is considered to be the first nationalist poet of Modern India. His poem “To India - My Native Land” which reads as follows is regarded as an important landmark in the history of patriotic poetry in India: My country! In thy days of glory past A beauteous halo circled round thy brow and worshipped as a deity thou wast— Where is thy glory, where the reverence now? Thy eagle pinion is chained down at last, And grovelling in the lowly dust art thou, Thy minstrel hath no wreath to weave for thee Save the sad story of thy misery! Well—let me dive into the depths of time And bring from out the ages, that have rolled A few small fragments of these wrecks sublime Which human eye may never more behold And let the guerdon of my labour be, My fallen country! One kind wish for thee! (poemhunter.com) However, in the light of the above mentioned historical facts it may safely be concluded that in his phrase “My fallen country” he was lamenting the loss of Portuguese empire to other European powers. Department of English U

if you are a lover of ye olde English as spaketh then, feast on!

 Project Canterbury

The Compleat Angler
Or the Contemplative Man's Recreation

by Izaak Walton


CHAPTER 1: A Conference betwixt an Angler,
a Faulkner, and a Hunter, each
commending his Recreation.

PISCATOR

VENATOR AUCEPS

PISC. You are well overtaken, Gentlemen, a good morning to you both; I have stretched my legs up Tottenham-hill to overtake you, hoping your business may occasion you towards Ware this fine fresh May morning.

VENA. Sir, I for my part shall almost answer your hopes, for my purpose is to drink my morning draught at the Thatcht House in Hodsden, and I think not to rest till I come thither, where I have appointed a friend or two to meet me: but for this Gentleman that you see with me, I know not how far he intends his journey; he came so lately into my company, that I have scarce had time to ask him the question.

AUC. Sir, I shall by your favour bear you company as far as Theobalds, and there leave you, for then I turn up to a friends house who mews a Hawk for me, which I now long to see.

VENA. Sir, we are all so happy as to have a fine, fresh, cool morning, and I hope we shall each be the happier in the others company. And Gentlemen, that I may not lose yours, I shall either abate or amend my pace to enjoy it; knowing that (as the Italians say) Good company in a journey makes the way to seem the shorter.

AUC. It may do so Sir, with the help of good discourse, which methinks we may promise from you that both look and speak so cheerfully: and for my part I promise you, as an invitation to it, that I will be as free and open hearted, as discretion will allow me to be with strangers.

VENA. And Sir, I promise the like.

PISC. I am right glad to hear your answers, and in confidence you speak the truth, I shall put on a boldnesse to ask you Sir, Whether businesse or pleasure caused you to be so early up, and walk so fast, for this other Gentleman hath declared he is going to see a Hawk, that a friend mews for him.

VENA. Sir mine is a mixture of both, a little businesse and more pleasure, for I intend this day to do all my businesse, and then bestow another day or two in hunting the Otter, which a friend that I go to meet, tells me, is much pleasanter than any other chase whatsoever; howsoever I mean to try it; for tomorrow morning we shall meet a pack of Otter dogs of noble Mr. Sadlers upon Amwell Hill, who will be there so early, that they intend to prevent the Sun-rising.

PISC. Sir, my fortune has answered my desires, and my purpose is to bestow a day or two in helping to destroy some of those villanous vermin, for I hate them perfectly, because they love fish so well, or rather, because they destroy so much; indeed so much, that in my judgment all men that keep Otter-dogs ought to have pensions from the King to incourage them to destroy the very breed of those base Otters, they do so much mischief.

VENA. But what say you to the Foxes of the Nation, would not you as willingly have them destroyed? for doubtless they do as much mischief as Otters do.

PISC. Oh Sir if they do, it is not so much to me and my fraternity as those base Vermine the Otters do.

AUC. Why Sir, I pray, of what Fraternity are you, that you are so angry with the poor Otters?

PISC. I am (Sir) a brother of the Angle, and therefore an enemy to the Otter: for you are to note, that we Anglers all love one another, and therefore do I hate the Otter both for my own and for their sakes who are of my brotherhood.

VENA. And I am a lover of Hounds, I have followed many a pack of dogs many a mile, and heard many merry men make sport and scoff at Anglers.

AUC. And I profess myself a Faulkner, and have heard many grave serious men pity them, ’tis such a heavy, contemptible, dull recreation.

PISC. You know Gentlemen, ’tis an easie thing to scoff at any Art or Recreation; a little wit mixt with ill nature, confidence, and malice, will do it; but though they often venture boldly, yet they are often caught even in their own trap, according to that of Lucian, the father of the family of Scoffers.

Lucian well skill’d in scoffing, this hath writ,
Friend, that’s your folly which you think your wit:
This you vent oft, void both of wit and fear,
Meaning another, when your self you jeere.

If to this you add what Solomon sayes of Scoffers, That they are abomination to mankind. Let him that thinks fit be a Scoffer still, but I account them enemies to me, and to all that love vertue and Angling.

And for you that have heard many grave serious men pity Anglers; let me tell you Sir, there be many men that are by others taken to be serious grave men, which we contemn and pity. Men that are taken to be grave, because Nature hath made them of a sowre complexion, money-getting-men, men that spend all their time first in getting, and next in anxious care to keep it; men that are condemned to be rich, and then always busie or discontented: for these poor-rich-men, we Anglers pity them perfectly, and stand in no need to borrow their thoughts to think our selves happy. No, no, Sir, we enjoy a contentednesse above the reach of such dispositions, and as the learned and ingenuous Mountagne sayes like himself freely, ‘When my Cat and I entertain each other with mutual apish tricks (as playing with a garter) who knowes but that I make my Cat more sport than she makes me? shall I conclude her to be simple, that has her time to begin or refuse sportiveness as freely as I my self have? Nay, who knowes but that it is a defect of my not understanding her language (for doubtless Cats talk and reason with one another) that we agree no better: and who knows but that she pitties me for being no wiser, and laughs and censures my follie for making sport for her when we play together.’

Thus freely speaks Mountagne concerning Cats, and I hope I may take as great a liberty to blame any man, and laugh at him too, let him be never so serious, that hath not heard what Anglers can say in the justification of their Art and Recreation, which I may again tell you is so full of pleasure, that we need not borrow their thoughts to think our selves happy.

VENA. Sir, you have almost amazed me, for though I am no scoffer, yet I have (I pray let me speak it without offence) alwayes looked upon Anglers as more patient and more simple men, then I fear I shall find you to be.

PISC. Sir, I hope you will not judge my earnestness to be impatience: and for my simplicity, if by that you mean a harmlessness, or that simplicity which was usually found in the primitive Christians, who were (as most Anglers are) quiet men, and followers of peace; men that were so simply-wise, as not to sell their Consciences to buy riches, and with them vexation and a fear to die. If you mean such simple men as lived in those times when there were fewer Lawyers; when men might have had a Lordship safely conveyed to them in a piece of Parchment no bigger than your hand (though several sheets will not do it safely in this wiser age) I say, Sir, if you take us Anglers to be such simple men as I have spoke of, then my self and those of my Profession will be glad to be so understood: But if by simplicity you meant to express a general defect in those that profess and practise the excellent art of Angling, I hope in time to disabuse you, and make the contrary appear so evidently, that if you will but have patience to hear me, I shall remove all the Anticipations that discourse, or time, or prejudice have possess’d you with against that laudable and ancient art; for I know it is worthy the knowledge and practice of a wise man.

But (Gentlemen) though I be able to do this, I am not so unmannerly as to engross all the discourse to my self; and, therefore you two having declared your selves, the one to be a lover of Hawks, the other of Hounds, I shall be most glad to hear what you can say in the commendation of that Recreation which you love and practise; and having heard what you can say, I shall be glad to exercise your attention with what I can say concerning my own Recreation, and by this means we shall make the way to seem the shorter: and if you like my motion, I would have Mr. Faulkner to begin.

AUC. Your motion is consented to with all my heart, and to testifie it I will begin as you have desired me.

And first, for the Element that I use to trade in, which is the Air, an Element of more worth than weight, an Element that doubtless exceeds both the Earth and Water; for though I sometimes deal in both, yet the Air is most properly mine, I and my Hawks use that most, and it yields us most recreation; it stops not the high soaring of my noble generous Falcon; in it she ascends to such an height, as the dull eyes of beasts and fish are not able to reach to; their bodies are too gross for such high elevations: in the Air my troops of Hawks soar up on high, and when they are lost in the sight of men, then they attend upon and converse with the gods; therefore I think my Eagle is so justly styled, Joves faithful servant in Ordinary: and that very Falcon, that I am now going to see, deserves no meaner a title, for she usually in her flight endangers her self, (like the son of Dedalus) to have her wings scorch’d by the Suns heat, but her mettle makes her careless of danger, for she then heeds nothing, but makes her nimble Pinions cut the fluid air, and so makes her high way over the steepest mountains and deepest rivers, and in her glorious carere looks with contempt upon those high Steeples and magnificent Palaces which we adore and wonder at; from which height I can make her to descend by a word from my mouth (which she both knows and obeyes) to accept of meat from my hand, to own me for her master, to go home with me, and be willing the next day to afford me the like recreation.

And more, this Element of Air which I profess to trade in, the worth of it is such, and it is of such necessity, that no creature whatsoever, not onely those numerous creatures that feed on the face of the earth, but those various creatures that have their dwelling within the waters, every creature that hath life in its Nostrils stands in need of my Element. The waters cannot preserve the fish without Air, witness the not-breaking of Ice in an extream Frost; the reason is, for that if the inspiring and expiring Organ of any animal be stopt, it suddenly yields to Nature, and dies. Thus necessary is Air to the existence both of fish and beasts, nay, even to man himself; that Air or breath of life, with which God at first inspired Mankind, he, if he wants it, dies presently, becomes a sad object to all that loved and beheld him, and in an instant turns to putrefaction.

Nay more, the very birds of the air (those that be not Hawks) are both so many and so useful and pleasant to mankind, that I must not let them pass without some observations: They both feed and refresh him; feed him with their choice bodies, and refresh him with their heavenly voices. I will not undertake to mention the several kinds of Fowl by which this is done; and his curious palate pleased by day, and which with their very excrements afford him a soft lodging at night. These I will pass by, but not those little nimble Musicians of the air, that warble forth their curious Ditties, with which Nature hath furnished them to the shame of Art.

As first the Lark, when she means to rejoyce, to chear her self and those that hear her, she then quits the earth, and sings as she ascends higher into the air, and having ended her heavenly imployment, grows then mute and sad to think she must descend to the dull earth, which she would not touch but for necessity.

How do the Black-bird and Thrassel with their melodious voices bid welcome to the cheerful Spring, and in their fixed Moneths warble forth such ditties as no art or instrument can reach to?

Nay, the smaller birds also do the like in their particular seasons, as namely the Leverock, the Tit-lark, the little Linnet, and the honest Robin, that loves mankind both alive and dead.

But the Nightingale (another of my Airy Creatures) breathes such sweet lowd musick out of her little instrumental throat, that it might make mankind to think Miracles are not ceased. He that at midnight (when the very labourer sleeps securely) should hear (as I have very often) the clear aires, the sweet descants, the natural rising and falling, the doubling and redoubling of her voice, might well be lifted above earth, and say, Lord, what Musick hast thou provided for the Saints in Heaven, when thou affordest bad men such musick on earth!

And this makes me the lesse to wonder at the many Aviaries in Italy, or at the great charge of Varro his Aviarie, the ruines of which are yet to be seen in Rome, and is still so famous there, that it is reckoned for one of those Notables which men of forraign Nations either record or lay up in their memories when they return from travel.

This for the birds of pleasure, of which very much more might be said. My next shall be of Birds of Political use; I think ’tis not to be doubted that Swallowes have been taught to carry Letters betwixt two Armies. But ’tis certain that when the Turks besieged Malta or Rodes (I now remember not which ’twas) Pigeons are then related to carry and recarry Letters. And Mr. G. Sandis in his Travells (fol. 269) relates it to be done betwixt Aleppo and Babylon. But if that be disbelieved, ’tis not to be doubted that the Dove was sent by Noah, to give him notice of Land, when to him all appeared to be Sea, and the Dove proved a faithful messenger. And for the Sacrifices of the Law, a pair of Turtle Doves or young Pigeons were as well accepted as costly Bulls and Rams. And when God would feed the Prophet Elijah (1 King. 17), after a kind of miraculous manner, he did it by Ravens, who brought him meat morning and evening. Lastly, the Holy Ghost when he descended visibly upon our Saviour, did it by assuming the shape of a Dove. And to conclude this part of my Discourse, pray remember these wonders were done by birds of the Air, the Element in which they and I take so much pleasure.

There is also a little contemptible winged Creature (an inhabitant of my Aerial Element) namely the laborous Bee, of whose Prudence, Policy and regular Government of their own Commonwealth I might say much, as also of their several kinds, and how useful their honey and wax is both for meat and Medicines to mankind; but I will leave them to their sweet labour, without the least disturbance, believing them to be all very busie amongst the herbs and flowers that we see nature puts forth this May morning.

And now to return to my Hawks from whom I have made too long a Digression; you are to note, that they are usually distinguished into two kinds; namely the long-winged and the short-winged Hawk: of the first kind, there be chiefly in use amongst us in this Nation,

The Gerfalcon and Jerkin.
The Falcon and Tassel-gentel.
The Laner and Laneret.
The Bockerel and Bockeret.
The Saker and Sacaret.
The Marlin and Jack Marlin.
The Hoby and Jack.
There is the Stelletto of Spain.
The Bloud red Rook from Turky.
The Waskite from Virginia.
And there is of short-winged Hawks
The Eagle and Iron.
The Goshawk and Tarcel.
The Sparhawk and Musket.
The French Pye of two sorts.

These are reckoned Hawks of note and worth, but we have also of an inferiour rank,

The Stanyel, the Ringtail.
The Raven, the Buzzard.
The forked Kite, the bald Buzzard.
The Hen-driver, and others that I forbear to name.

Gentlemen, if I should inlarge my Discourse to the observation of the Eires, the Brancher, the Ramish Hawk, the Haggard, and the two sorts of Lentners, and then treat of their several Ayries, their Mewings, rare order of casting, and the renovation of their Feathers, their reclaiming, dyeting, and then come to their rare stories of practice; I say, if I should enter into these, and many other observations that I could make, it would be much, very much pleasure to me: but least I should break the rules of Civility with you, by taking up more than the proportion of time allotted to me, I will here break off, and intreat you, Mr. Venator, to say what you are able in the commendation of Hunting, to which you are so much affected, and if time will serve, I will beg your favour for a further enlargement of some of those several heads of which I have spoken. But no more at present.

VENA. Well Sir, and I will now take my turn, and will first begin with a commendation of the earth, as you have done most excellently of the Air, the Earth being that Element upon which I drive my pleasant wholesome hungry trade. The Earth is a solid, settled Element; an Element most universally beneficial both to man and beast; to men who have their several Recreations upon it, as Horse-races, Hunting, sweet smells, pleasant walks. The earth feeds man, and all those several beasts that both feed him, and afford him recreation: What pleasure doth man take in hunting the stately Stag, the generous Buck, the Wild Boar, the cunning Otter, the crafty Fox, and the fearful Hare? And if I may descend to a lower Game, what pleasure is it sometimes with Gins to betray the very vermine of the earth? as namely the Fichat, the Fulimart, the Feret, the Pole-cat, the Mouldwarp, and the like creatures that live upon the face, and within the bowels of the earth. How doth the earth bring forth herbs, flowers and fruits, both for physick and the pleasure of mankind? and above all, to me at least, the fruitful Vine, of which when I drink moderately, it clears my brain, chears my heart, and sharpens my wit. How could Cleopatra have feasted Mark Antony with eight Wild Boars roasted whole at one Supper, and other meat suitable, if the earth had not been a bountiful mother? But to pass by the mighty Elephant, which the earth breeds and nourisheth, and descend to the least of creatures, how doth the earth afford us a doctrinal example in the little Pismire, who in the Summer provides and layes up her Winter-provision, and teaches man to do the like? The earth feeds and carries those horses that carry us. If I would be prodigal of my time and your patience, what might not I say in commendations of the earth? That puts limits to the proud and raging Sea, and by that means preserves both man and beast, that it destroyes them not; as we see it daily doth those that venture upon the sea, and are there ship wreckt, drowned, and left to feed Haddocks; when we that are so wise as to keep ourselves on earth, walk, and talk, and live, and eat, and drink, and go a hunting: of which recreation I will say a little, and then leave Mr. Piscator to the commendation of Angling.

Hunting is a game for Princes and noble persons; it hath been highly prized in all Ages; it was one of the qualifications that Zenophon bestowed on his Cyrus, that he was a Hunter of wild beasts. Hunting trains up the younger Nobility to the use of manly exercises in their riper age. What more manly exercise than hunting the Wild Bore, the Stag, the Buck, the Fox, or the Hare? How doth it preserve health, and increase strength and activity?

And for the Dogs that we use, who can commend their excellency to that height which they deserve? How perfect is the Hound at smelling, who never leaves or forsakes his sent, but follows it thorow so many changes and varieties of other sents, even over and in the water, and into the earth? What musique doth a pack of Dogs then make to any man, whose heart and ears are so happy as to be set to the tune of such instruments? How will a right Greyhound fix his eye on the best Buck in a heard, single him out and follow him, and him onely through a whole herd of Rascal game, and still know and kill him? For my Hounds I know the language of them, and they know the language and meaning of one another as perfectly as we know the voices of those with whom we discourse daily.

I might enlarge myself in the commendation of Hunting, and of the noble Hound especially, as also of the docibleness of dogs in general; and I might make many observations of Land-creatures, that for composition, order, figure and constitution, approach nearest to the compleatness and understanding of man; especially of those creatures which Moses in the Law permitted to the Jews (which have cloven hoofs, and chew the Cud), which I shall forbear to name, because I will not be so uncivil to Mr. Piscator, as not to allow him a time for the commendation of Angling, which he calls an Art, but doubtless ’tis an easie one: and Mr. Auceps, I doubt we shall hear a watry discourse of it; but I hope ’twill not be a long one.

AUC. And I hope so too, though I fear it will.

PISC. Gentlemen, let not prejudice prepossesse you. I confesse my discourse is like to prove suitable to my Recreation, calm and quiet; we seldome take the name of God into our mouths, but it is either to praise him or pray to him; if others use it vainly in the midst of their recreations, so vainly as if they meant to conjure, I must tell you it is neither our fault nor our custom; we, we protest against it. But, pray remember I accuse no body; for as I would not make a watry discourse, so I would not put too much vinegar into it, nor would I raise the reputation of my own Art by the diminution or ruine of anothers. And so much for the Prologue to what I mean to say.

And now for the Water, the Element that I trade in. The water is the eldest daughter of the Creation, the Element upon which the Spirit of God did first move, the Element which God commanded to bring forth living creatures abundantly; and without which those that inhabit the Land, even all creatures that have breath in their nostrils must suddenly return to putrefaction. Moses the great Law-giver and chief Philosopher, skilled in all the learning of the Egyptians, who was called the friend of God, and knew the mind of the Almighty, names this element the first in the Creation; this is the element upon which the Spirit of God did first move, and is the chief Ingredient in the Creation; Many Philosophers have made it to comprehend all the other Elements, but most allow it the chiefest in the mixtion of all living creatures.

There be that profess to believe that all bodies are made of water, and may be reduced back again to water onely: they endeavour to demonstrate it thus:

Take a Willow (or any like speedy growing plant) newly rooted in a box or barrel full of earth, weigh them all together exactly when the tree begins to grow, and then weigh all together after the tree is increased from its first rooting to weigh an hundred pound weight more than when it was first rooted and weighed; and you shall find this augment of the tree to be without the diminution of one dram of the earth. Hence they infer this increase of wood to be from water of rain, or from dew, and not to be from any other Element. And they affirm, they can reduce this wood back again to water; and they affirm also the same may be done in any animal or vegetable. And this I take to be a fair testimony of the excellency of my element of water.

The Water is more productive than the Earth. Nay, the earth hath no fruitfulness without showers or dews; all the herbs, and flowers, and fruit are produced and thrive by the water; and the very Minerals are fed by streams that run under ground, whose natural course carries them to the tops of many high mountains, as we see by several springs breaking forth on the tops of the highest hills, and this is also witnessed by the daily tryal and testimony of several Miners.

Nay, the increase of those creatures that are bred and fed in the water, are not onely more and more miraculous, but more advantagious to man, not onely for the lengthning of his life, but for the preventing of sicknesse; for ’tis observed by the most learned Physicians, that the casting off of Lent and other Fish-dayes (which hath not onely given the Lie to so many learned, pious, wise Founders of Colledges, for which we should be ashamed) hath doubtless been the chief cause of those many putride, shaking, intermitting Agues, unto which this Nation of ours is now more subject than those wiser Countries that feed on Herbs, Sallets, and plenty of Fish; of which it is observed in Story, that the greatest part of the world now do. And it may be fit to remember that Moses (Lev. 11. 9. Deut. 14. 9.) appointed Fish to be the chief diet for the best Common-wealth that ever yet was.

And it is observable not onely that there are Fish, (as namely the Whale) three times as big as the mighty Elephant, that is so fierce in battel; but that the mightiest Feasts have been of Fish. The Romans in the height of their glory have made Fish the mistress of all their entertainments; they have had Musick to usher in their Sturgeons, Lampreyes, and Mullet, which they would purchase at rates rather to be wondred at than believed. He that shall view the Writings of Macrobius or Varro, may be confirmed and informed of this, and of the incredible value of their Fish, and Fish-ponds.

But, Gentlemen, I have almost lost my self, which I confess I may easily do in this Philosophical Discourse; I met with most of it very lately (and I hope happily) in a conference with a most learned Physician, a dear Friend, that loves both me and my Art of Angling. But however I will wade no deeper in these mysterious Arguments, but pass to such Observations as I can manage with more pleasure, and less fear of running into error. But I must not yet forsake the Waters, by whose help we have so many known advantages.

And first (to passe by the miraculous cures of our known Baths) how advantagious is the Sea for our daily Traffique, without which we could not now subsist? How does it not onely furnish us with food and physick for the bodies, but with such observations for the mind as ingenious persons would not want?

How ignorant had we been of the beauty of Florence, of the Monuments, Urns, and Rarities that yet remain in, and near unto old and new Rome (so many as it is said will take up a years time to view, and afford to each but a convenient consideration) and therefore it is not to be wondred at, that so learned and devout a Father as St. Jerome, after his wish to have seen Christ in the flesh, and to have heard St. Paul preach, makes his third wish to have seen Rome in her glory; and that beauty is not yet all lost, for what pleasure is it to see the Monuments of Livy, the choicest of the Historians; of Tully, the best of Orators; and to see the Bay-trees that now grow out of the very Tomb of Virgil? These to any that love Learning. But what pleasure is it to a devout Christian to see there the humble house in which Saint Paul was content to dwell; and to view the many rich Statues that are there made in honour of his memory? nay, to see the very place in which Saint Peter and he lie buried together? These are in and near to Rome. And how much more doth it please the pious curiosity of a Christian to see that place, on which the blessed Saviour of the world was pleased to humble himself, and to take our nature upon him, and to converse with men; to see Mount Sion, Jerusalem, and the very Sepulchre of our Jesus? How may it beget and heighten the zeal of a Christian to see the Devotions that are daily paid to him at that place? Gentlemen, lest I forget my self I will stop here, and remember you, that but for my Element of water the Inhabitants of this poor Island must remain ignorant that such things have yet a being.

Gentlemen, I might both enlarge and lose myself in such like Arguments; I might tell you that Almighty God is said to have spoken to a Fish, but never to a Beast; that he hath made a Whale a Ship to carry and set his prophet Jonah safe on the appointed shore. Of these I might speake, but I must in manners break off, for I see Theobalds house. I cry you mercy for being so long, and thank you for your patience.

AUC. Sir, my pardon is easily granted you: I except against nothing that you have said, neverthelesse I must part with you at this Park-wall, for which I am very sorry; but I assure you Mr. Piscator, I now part with you full of good thoughts, not onely of your self, but your Recreation. And so Gentlemen, God keep you both.

PISC. Well, now Mr. Venator you shall neither want time nor my attention to hear you enlarge your Discourse concerning Hunting.

VENA. Not I Sir, I remember you said that Angling it self was of great Antiquity, and a perfect Art, and an Art not easily attained to; and you have so won upon me in your former discourse, that I am very desirous to hear what you can say further concerning those particulars.

PISC. Sir, I did say so, and I doubt not but if you and I did converse together but a few hours, to leave you possest with the same high and happy thoughts that now possess me of it; not onely of the Antiquity of Angling, but that it deserves commendations, and that it is an Art, and an Art worthy the knowledge and practise of a wise man.

VENA. Pray Sir speak of them what you think fit; for we have yet five miles to the Thatcht-Houe, during which walk I dare promise you my patience and diligent attention shall not be wanting. And if you shall make that to appear which you have undertaken, first, that it is an Art, and an Art worth the learning, I shall beg that I may attend you a day or two a fishing, and that I may become your Scholar, and be instructed in the Art it self which you so much magnifie.

PISC. O Sir, doubt not but that Angling is an Art, and an Art worth your learning: the Question is rather whether you be capable of learning it? for Angling is somewhat like Poetry, men are to be born so: I mean, with inclinations to it, though both may be heightned by practice and experience: but he that hopes to be a good Angler must not onely bring an inquiring, searching, observing wit, but he must bring a large measure of hope and patience, and a love and propensity to the Art it self; but having once got and practis’d it, then doubt not but Angling will prove to be so pleasant, that it will prove like Vertue, a reward to it self.

VENA. Sir, I am now become so full of expectation that I long much to have you proceed, and in the order that you propose.

PISC. Then first, for the antiquity of Angling, of which I shall not say much, but onely this; Some say it is as ancient as Deucalions Flood: others, that Belus, who was the first Inventor of Godly and vertuous Recreations, was the first Inventor of Angling: and some others say (for former times have had their disquisitions about the Antiquity of it) that Seth, one of the sons of Adam, taught it to his Sons, and that by them it was derived to posterity: others say, that he left it ingraven on those pillars which he erected, and trusted to preserve the knowledge of the Mathematicks, Musick, and the rest of that precious knowledge, and those useful Arts which by Gods appointment or allowance and his noble industry were thereby preserved from perishing in Noahs flood.

These, Sir, have been the opinions of several men, that have possibly endeavoured to make Angling more ancient than is needful, or may well be warranted; but for my part, I shall content my self in telling you that Angling is much more ancient than the Incarnation of our Saviour; for in the Prophet Amos mention is made of fish-hooks; and in the Book of Job (which was long before the days of Amos, for that book is said to be writ by Moses) mention is made also of Fish-hooks, which must imply Anglers in those times.

But my worthy friend, as I would rather prove my self a Gentleman by being learned, and humble, valiant, and inoffensive, vertuous, and communicable, than by any fond ostentation of riches, or wanting these vertues my self, boast that these were in my Ancestors (and yet I grant that where a noble and ancient descent and such merits meet in any man, it is a double dignification of that person:) So if this Antiquity of Angling (which for my part I have not forced) shall like an ancient family, be either an honour or an ornament to this vertuous Art which I profess to love and practice, I shall be the gladder that I made an accidental mention of the antiquity of it; of which I shall say no more but proceed to that just commendation which I think it deserves.

And for that I shall tell you, that in ancient times a debate hath risen (and it remains yet unresolved) Whether the happiness of man in this world doth consist more in Contemplation or action.

Concerning which some have endeavoured to maintain their opinion of the first, by saying, That the nearer we Mortals come to God by way of imitation, the more happy we are. And they say, That God enjoys himself onely by a contemplation of his own infinitenesse, Eternity, Power and Goodness, and the like. And upon this ground many Cloysteral men of great learning and devotion prefer Contemplation before Action. And many of the Fathers seem to approve this opinion, as may appear in their Commentaries upon the words of our Saviour to Martha, Luke 10. 41, 42.

And on the contrary, there want not men of equal authority and credit, that prefer action to be the more excellent, as namely, experiments in Physick, and the application of it, both for the ease and prolongation of mans life; by which each man is enabled to act and do good to others; either to serve his Countrey, or do good to particular persons; and they say also, That action is Doctrinal, and teaches both art and vertue, and is a maintainer of humane society; and for these and other like reasons to be preferred before contemplation.

Concerning which two opinions I shall forbear to add a third, by declaring my own, and rest my self contented in telling you (my very worthy friend) that both these meet together, and do most properly belong to the most honest, ingenuous, quiet, and harmlesse art of Angling.

And first, I shall tell you what some have observed, (and I have found it to be a real truth) that the very sitting by the Rivers side is not onely the quietest and fittest place for contemplation, but will invite an Angler to it: and this seems to be maintained by the learned Pet. du Moline, who (in his Discourse of the Fulfilling of Prophecies) observes, that when God intended to reveal any future events or high notions to his Prophets, he then carried them either to the Deserts or the Sea-shore, that having so separated them from amidst the press of people, and businesse, and the cares of the world, he might settle their minds in a quiet repose, and there make them fit for Revelation.

And this seems also to be intimated by the Children of Israel (Psal. 137) who having in a sad condition banished all mirth and musique from their pensive hearts, and having hung up their then mute Harps upon the Willow-trees growing by the Rivers of BabyIon, sate down upon those banks bemoaning the ruines of Sion, and contemplating their own sad condition.

And an ingenuous Spaniard sayes, That Rivers and the Inhabitants of the watry Element were made for wise men to contemplate, and fools to passe by without consideration. And though I will not rank myself in the number of the first, yet give me leave to free my self from the last, by offering to you a short contemplation, first of Rivers, and then of Fish, concerning which I doubt not but to give you many observations that will appear very considerable: I am sure they have appeared so to me, and made many an hour passe away more pleasantly, as I have sate quietly on a flowery Bank by a calm River, and contemplated what I shall now relate to you.

And first concerning Rivers, there be divers wonders reported of them by Authors of such credit, that we need not deny them an Historical Faith.

As namely of a River in Epirus, that puts out any lighted Torch, and kindles any Torch that was not lighted. Some Waters being drunk cause madnesse, some drunkennesse, and some laughter to death. The River Selarus in a few hours turns a rod or wand to be stone: and our Cambden mentions the like in England, and the like in Lochmere in Ireland. There is also a River in Arabia, of which all the sheep that drink thereof have their wool turned into a Vermillion colour. And one of no lesse credit than Aristotle tells us of a merry river (the river Elusina) that dances at the noise of musique, for with musique it bubbles, dances and grows sandy, and so continues till the musique ceases, but then it presently returns to its wonted calmness and clearness. And Cambden tells us of a Well near to Kerby in Westmoreland, that ebbs and flows several times every day: and he tells us of a river in Surry (it is called Mole), that after it has run several miles, being opposed by hills, finds or makes itself a way under ground, and breaks out again so far off, that the Inhabitants thereabout boast (as the Spaniards do of their River Anus) that they feed divers flocks of sheep upon a Bridge. And, lastly, for I would not tire your patience, one of no lesse authority than Josephus that learned Jew, tells us of a River in Judea, that runs swiftly all the six days of the week, and stands still and rests all their Sabbath.

But, Sir, lest this Discourse may seem tedious, I shall give it a sweet conclusion out of that holy Poet Mr. George Herbert his Divine Contemplation on Gods Providence:

Lord, who hath praise enough, nay, who hath any?
None can express thy works, but he that knows them,
And none can know thy works, they are so many,
And so compleat, but onely he that ows them.

We all acknowledge both thy power and love
To be exact, transcendent and divine;
Who dost so strangely and so sweetly move,
Whilst all things have their end, yet none but thine.

Wherefore, most sacred Spirit, I here present
For me, and all my fellows praise to thee;
And just it is that I should pay the rent,
Because the benefit accrues to me.

And as concerning fish, in that Psalm (Psal. 104) wherein for height of Poetry and Wonders the Prophet David seems even to exceed himself, how doth he there express himself in choice Metaphors, even to the amazement of a contemplative Reader, concerning the Sea, the Rivers, and the Fish therein contained? And the great Naturalist Pliny sayes, That Natures great and wonderful power is more demonstrated in the Sea than on the Land. And this may appear by the numerous and various creatures, inhabiting both in and about that Element; as to the Readers of Gesner, Randeletius, Pliny, Ausonius, Aristotle, and others, may be demonstrated. But I will sweeten this Discourse also out of a Contemplation in Divine Dabartas, who sayes,

God quickned in the sea and in the rivers,
So many fishes of so many features,
That in the waters we may see all creatures,
Even all that on the earth is to be found,
As if the world were in deep waters drown’d.
For seas (as well as skies) have Sun, Moon, Stars;
(As well as air) Swallows, Rooks, and Stares;
(As well as earth) Vines, Roses, Nettles, Melons,
Mushrooms, Pinks, Gilliflowers, and many millions
Of other plants, more rare, more strange than these,
As very fishes living in the seas:
Wolves, Urchins, Lions, Elephants, and Dogs;
Yea, Men and Maids, and which I most admire,
The mitred Bishop, and the cowled Fryer.
Of which, examples but a few years since,
Were shown the Norway and Polonian prince.

These seem to be wonders, but have had so many confirmations from men of learning and credit, that you need not doubt them; nor are the number, nor the various shapes of fishes, more strange or more fit for contemplation, than their different natures, inclinations and actions; concerning which I shall beg your patient ear a little longer.

The Cuttle-fish will cast a long gut out of her throat, which (like as an Angler doth his line) she sendeth forth and pulleth in again at her pleasure, according as she sees some little fish come near to her; and the Cuttie-fish (being then hid in the gravel) lets the smaller fish nibble and bite the end of it, at which time she by little and little draws the smaller fish so near to her, that she may leap upon her, and then catches and devours her: and for this reason some have called this fish the Sea-angler.

And there is a fish called a Hermit, that at a certain age gets into a dead fishes shell, and like a Hermite dwells there alone, studying the wind and weather, and so turns her shell that she makes it defend her from the injuries that they would bring upon her.

There is also a fish called by Elian (in his 9. book of Living Creatures, Chap. 16) the Adonis, or Darling of the Sea; so called, because it is a loving and innocent fish, a fish that hurts nothing that hath life, and is at peace with all the numerous Inhabitants of that vast watery Element: and truly I think most Anglers are so disposed to most of mankind.

And there are also lustful and chast Fishes, of which I shall give you examples.

And first, what Dubartas says of a fish called the Sargus; which (because none can expresse it better than he does) I shall give you in his own words, supposing it shall not have the less credit for being Verse, for he hath gathered this, and other observations out of Authors that have been great and industrious searchers into the secrets of Nature.

The Adult’rous Sargus doth not only change
Wifes every day in the deep streams, but (strange)
As if the honey of Sea-love delight
Could not suffice his ranging appetite,
Goes courting she-Goats on the grassie shore,
Horning their husbands that had horns before.

And the same Author writes concerning the Cantharus, that which you shall also hear in his own words.

But contrary, the constant Cantharus,
Is ever constant to his faithful Spouse,
In nuptial duties spending his chaste life,
Never loves any but his own dear wife.

Sir, but a little longer, and I have done.

VENA. Sir, take what libertie you think fit, for your discourse seems to be Musique, and charms me into an attention.

PISC. Why then Sir, I will take a little liberty to tell, or rather to remember you what is said of Turtle-Doves: First, that they silently plight their troth and marry; and that then, the Survivor scornes (as the Thracian women are said to do) to out-live his or her mate; and this is taken for such a truth, and if the Survivor shall ever couple with another, then not only the living, but the dead (be it either the He or the she) is denyed the name and honour of a true Turtle-dove.

And to parallel this Land Rarity, and teach mankind moral faithfulness, and to condemn those that talk of Religion, and yet come short of the moral faith of fish and fowl; Men that violate the Law affirmed by Saint Paul (Rom. 2. 14, 15) to be writ in their hearts, (and which he sayes, shall at the last day condemn and leave them without excuse), I pray hearken to what Dubartas sings, (for the hearing of such conjugal faithfulness, will be Musick to all chaste ears) and therefore I pray hearken to what Dubartas sings of the Mullet.

But for chaste love the Mullet hath no peer;
For, if the Fisher hath surpriz’d her pheer,
As mad with wo, to shore she followeth,
Prest to consort him both in life and death.

On the contrary, what shall I say of the House-Cock, which treads any Hen, and then (contrary to the Swan, the Partridge and Pigeon) takes no care to hatch, to feed or to cherish his own brood, but is senseless though they perish.

And ’tis considerable, that the Hen (which because she also takes any Cock, expects it not) who is sure the Chickens be her own, hath by a moral impression her care and affection to her own Brood more than doubled, even to such a height, that our Saviour in expressing his love to Jerusalem (Mat. 23. 37) quotes her for an example of tender affection, as his Father had done Job for a patern of patience.

And to parallel this Cock, there be divers fishes that cast their Spawn on flags or stones, and then leave it uncovered, and exposed to become a prey, and be devoured by Vermine or other fishes: but other fishes (as namely the Barbel) take such care for the preservation of their seed, that (unlike to the Cock or the Cuckoe) they mutually labour (both the Spawner and the Melter) to cover their Spawn with sand, or watch it, or hide it in some secret place unfrequented by Vermine or by any Fish but themselves.

Sir, these Examples may, to you and others, seem strange; but they are testified some by Aristotle, some by Pliny, some by Gesner, and by many others of credit, and are believed and known by divers, both of wisdom and experience, to be a Truth; and indeed are (as I said at the beginning) fit for the contemplation of a most serious and a most pious man. And doubtless this made the Prophet David say, They that occupy themselves in deep waters see the wonderful works of God: indeed such wonders and pleasures too as the land affords not.

And that they be fit for the contemplation of the most prudent, and pious, and peaceable men, seems to be testifyed by the practice of so many devout and contemplative men, as the Patriarchs and Prophets of old, and of the Apostles of our Saviour in these later times; of which twelve he chose four that were Fishermen, whom he inspired and sent to publish his blessed Will to the Gentiles, freedom from the incumbrances of the Law, and a new way to everlasting life; this was the imployment of these Fishermen. Concerning which choice, some have made these Observations.

First, that he never reproved these for their Imployment or Calling, as he did the Scribes and the Moneychangers. And secondly, he found that the hearts of such men by nature were fitted for contemplation and quietnesse; men of mild, and sweet, and peaceable spirits, as indeed most Anglers are: these men our blessed Saviour (who is observed to love to plant grace in good natures), though nothing be too hard for him, yet these men he chose to call from their irreprovable imployment of Fishing, and gave them grace to be his Disciples, and to follow him. I say four of twelve.

And it is observable, that it was our Saviours will, that these our four Fishermen should have a priority of nomination in the catalogue of his twelve Apostles, (Mat. 10) as namely first St. Peter, St. Andrew, St. James and St. John, and then the rest in their order.

And it is yet more observable, that when our blessed Saviour went up into the Mount, when he left the rest of his Disciples, and chose onely three to bear him company at his Transfiguration, that those three were all Fishermen. And it is to be believed, that all the other Apostles, after they betook themselves to follow Christ, betook themselves to be Fishermen too; for it is certain that the greater number of them were found together a Fishing by Jesus after his Resurrection, as is recorded in the 21 Chapter of St. Johns Gospel.

And since I have your promise to hear me with patience, I will take a liberty to look back upon an observation that hath been made by an ingenuous and learned man, who observes that God hath been pleased to allow those, whom he himself hath appointed to writ his holy Will in holy Writ, yet to express his Will in such Metaphors as their former affections or practice had inclined them to; and he brings Solomon for an example, who before his conversion was remarkably carnally-amorous; and after by Gods appointment writ that spiritual, holy, amorous Love-song (the Cantides) betwixt God and his Church, (in which he sayes she had Eyes like the fish-pools of Heshbon).

And if this hold in reason as I see none to the contrary, then it may be probably concluded, that Moses (whom, I told you before, writ the Book of Job) and the Prophet Amos, who was a Shepherd, were both Anglers, for you shall in all the Old Testament find Fish-hooks, I think but twice mentioned, namely, by meek Moses the friend of God, and by the humble Prophet Amos.

Concerning which last, namely the Prophet Amos, I shall make but this Observation, That he that shall read the humble, lowly, plain style of that Prophet, and compare it with the high-glorious, eloquent style of the Prophet Isaiah (though they be both equally true) may easily believe him to be, not only a Shepherd, but a good-natur’d, plain Fisher-man.

Which I do the rather believe, by comparing the affectionate, loving, lowly, humble Epistles of S. Peter, S. James and S. John, whom we know were all Fishers, with the glorious language and high Metaphors of S. Paul, who we may believe was not.

And for the lawfulness of Fishing: it may very well be maintained by our Saviours bidding St. Peter cast his hook into the water and catch a Fish, for money to pay Tribute to Caesar. And let me tell you, that angling is of high esteem, and of much use in other Nations. He that reads the Voyages of Ferdinand Mendez Pinto, shall find that there he declares to have found a King and several Priests a Fishing.

And he that reads Plutarch shall find that Angling was not contemptible in the dayes of Mark Antony and Cleopatra, and that they in the midst of their wonderful glory used Angling as a principal recreation. And let me tell you, that in the Scripture Angling is alwayes taken in the best sense; and that though hunting may be sometimes so taken, yet it is but seldom to be so understood. And let me adde this more, he that views the ancient Ecclesiastical Canons, shall find Hunting to be forbidden to Church-men, as being a toilsom, perplexing Recreation; and shall find angling allowed to Clergy-men, as being a harmlesse Recreation, a recreation that invites them to contemplation and quietness.

I might here enlarge myself, by telling you what commendations our learned Perkins bestowes on Angling: and how dear a lover, and great a practiser of it our learned Doctor Whitaker was, as indeed many others of great note have been. But I will content my self with two memorable men, that lived neer to our own time, whom I also take to have been ornaments to the Art of Angling.

The first is Doctor Nowel sometimes Dean of the Cathedral Church of Saint Paul in London, where his Monument stands yet undefaced; a man that in the Reformation of Queen Elizabeth (not that of Henry the VIII) was so noted for his meek spirit, deep learning, prudence and piety, that the then Parliament and Convocation both, chose, injoyned and trusted him to be the man to make a Catechism for publick use, such a one as should stand as a rule for faith and manners to their posterity. And the good old man (though he was very learned, yet knowing that God leads us not to heaven by many nor by hard questions) like an honest Angler, made that good, plain, unperplext Catechism which is printed with our good old Service Book. I say, this good man was a dear lover, and constant practicer of Angling, as any Age can produce; and his custome was to spend besides his fixt hours of prayer (those hours which by command of the Church were enjoyned the Clergy, and voluntarily dedicated to devotion by many Primitive Christians): besides those hours, this good man was observed to spend a tenth part of his time in Angling; and also (for I have conversed with those which have conversed with him) to bestow a tenth part of his Revenue, and usually all his fish, amongst the poor that inhabited near to those Rivers in which it was caught: saying often, That charity gave life to Religion: and at his return to his house would praise God he had spent that day free from worldly trouble; both harmlessly, and in a recreation that became a Church-man. And this good man was well content, if not desirous, that posterity should know he was an Angler, as may appear by his Picture, now to be seen, and carefully kept in Brasenose Colledge (to which he was a liberal benefactor), in which Picture he is drawn leaning on a Desk with his Bible before him, and on one hand of him his lines, hooks, and other tackling lying in a round; and on his other hand is his Angle-rods of several sorts; and by them this is written, That he died. 13 Feb. 1601, being aged 95 years, 44 of which he had been Dean of St. Pauls Church; and that his age had neither impair’d his hearing, nor dimm’d his eyes, nor weakn’d his memory, nor made any of the faculties of his mind weak or uselesse. ’Tis said that angling and temperance were great causes of these blessings, and I wish the like to all that imitate him, and love the memory of so good a man.

My next and last example shall be that undervaluer of money, the late Provost of Eton Colledge, Sir Henry Wotton (a man with whom I have often flsh’d and convers’d), a man whose foreign Imployments, in the service of this Nation, and whose experience, learning, wit and chearfulness made his company to be esteemed one of the delights of mankind; this man, whose very approbation of angling were sufficient to convince any modest censurer of it, this man was also a most dear lover, and a frequent practiser of the art of angling; of which he would say, ’Twas an imployment for his idle time, which was then not idlely spent: for angling was after tedious Study, a rest to his mind, a cheerer of his spirits, a diverter of sadnesse, a calmer of unquiet thoughts, a moderator of passions, a procurer of contentednesse; and that it begot habits of peace and patience in those that profess’d and practis’d it. Indeed, my friend, you will find angling to be like the vertue of Humility, which has a calmness of spirit, and a world of other blessings attending upon it.

Sir, this was the saying of that learned man, and I do easily believe that peace, and patience, and a calme content did cohabit in the cheerful heart of Sir Henry Wotton, because I know that when he was beyond seventy years of age, he made this description of a part of the present pleasure that possess’d him, as he sate quietly in a Summers evening on a bank a Fishing; it is a description of the Spring, which, because it glides as soft and sweetly from his pen, as that river does at this time by which it was then made, I shall repeat it unto you.

This day dame Nature seem’d in love:
The lusty sap began to move;
Fresh juice did stir th’ imbracing Vines,
And birds had drawn their valentines,
The jealous Trout, that low did lie,
Rose at a well-dissembled flie;
There stood my friend with patient skill,
Attending of his trembling quill.
Already were the eaves possest
With the swift Pilgrims dawbed nest:
The Groves already did rejoyce,
In Philomels triumphing voice:
The showers were short, the weather mild,
The morning fresh, the evening smil’d.
Jone takes her neat-rub’d pail, and now
She trips to milk the sand-red Cow;
Where, for some sturdy foot-ball Swain,
Jone strokes a sillibub or twain.
The fields and gardens were beset
With Tulips, Crocus, Violet,
And now, though late, the modest Rose
Did more than half a blush disclose.
Thus all looks gay, and full of cheer,
To welcome the new-livery’d year.

These were the thoughts that then possest the undisturbed mind of Sir Henry Wotton. Will you hear the wish of another Angler, and the commendation of his happy life which he also sings in Verse? viz. Jo. Davors Esq.

Let me live harmlessly, and near the brink
Of Trent or Avon have a dwelling place;
Where I may see my quill or cork down sink
With eager bit of Pearch, or Bleak, or Dace;
And on the world and my Creator think,
Whilst some men strive, ill gotten goods t’ imbrace;
And others spend their time in base excesse
Of wine or worse, in war and wantonness.

Let them that list, these pastimes still pursue,
And on such pleasing fancies feed their fill,
So I the fields and Meadowes green may view,
And daily by fresh Rivers walk at will,
Among the Daisies and the Violets blue.
Red Hiacynth, and yellow Daffadil,
Purple Narcissus like the morning rayes,
Pale Gandergrasse, and azure Culverkayes.

I count it higher pleasure to behold
The stately compasse of the lofty skie,
And in the midst thereof (like burning gold)
The flaming Chariot of the worlds great eye,
The watry cloudes that in the air up rold,
With sundry kinds of painted colours flie;
And fair Aurora lifting up her head,
Still blushing, rise from old Tithonius bed.

The hills and mountains raised from the plains,
The plains extended level with the ground,
The grounds divided into sundry vains,
The veins inclos’d with rivers running round;
These rivers making way through natures chains
With headlong course, into the sea profound;
The raging sea, beneath the values low,
Where lakes and rils and rivulets do flow.

The lofty woods, the forrests wide and long
Adorn’d with leaves and branches fresh and green,
In whose cool bowres the birds with many a song
Do welcome with their Quire the Summers Queen;
The Meadowes fair, where Flora’s gifts among
Are intermixt, with verdant grasse between.
The silver-scaled fish that softly swim
Within the sweet brooks crystal watry stream.
All these, and many more of his Creation,
That made the Heavens, the Angler oft doth see,
Taking therein no little delectation,
To think how strange, how wonderful they be;
Framing thereof an inward contemplation,
To set his heart from other fancies free;
And whilst he looks on these with joyful eye,
His mind is wrapt above the starry Skie.

Sir I am glad my memory has not lost these last Verses, because they are somewhat more pleasant and more sutable to May-Day, then my harsh Discourse: and I am glad your patience hath held out so long, as to hear them and me: for both together have brought us within the sight of the Thatcht house: and I must be your Debtor (if you think it worth your attention) for the rest of my promised discourse, till some other opportunity, and a like time of leisure.

VENA. Sir, you have Angled me on with much pleasure to the Thatcht house: and I now find your words true That good company makes the way seem short, for trust me, Sir, I thought we had wanted three miles of this House till you shewed it to me: but now we are at it, we’l turn into it, and refresh our selves with a cup of drink and a little rest.

PISC. Most gladly (Sir) and we’l drink a civil cup to all the Otter Hunters that are to meet you to morrow.

VENA. That we will Sir, and to all the lovers of Angling too, of which number, I am now willing to be one my self, for by the help of your good discourse and company, I have put on new thoughts both of the Art of Angling, and of all that professe it: and if you will but meet me to morrow at the time and place appointed, and bestow one day with me and my friends in hunting the Otter, I will dedicate the next two dayes to wait upon you, and we two will for that time do nothing but angle, and talk of fish and fishing.

PISC. ’Tis a match, Sir, I’l not fail you, God willing, to be at Amwel-hill tomorrow morning before Sunrising.